Vital Stats: Nutrition 21's Chromax chromium picolinate
Study claim: Nutrition 21's Chromax chromium picolinate significantly reduces hunger levels by 24 per cent, and food intake by 25 per cent, and also reduces cravings for high-fat foods in adult non-diabetic overweight women.
Published: Anton SD, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther 2008 Oct;10(5):405-12.
Abstract: Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been shown to attenuate weight gain, but the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Researchers assessed the effect of CrPic in modulating food intake in healthy, overweight, adult women who reported craving carbohydrates (Study 1) and performed confirmatory studies in Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 2). Study 1 utilised a double-blind, placebo-controlled design and randomly assigned 42 overweight adult women with carbohydrate cravings to receive 1,000mg CrPic or placebo for 8 weeks. Study subjects were allowed to eat any type and amount of food throughout the study. Food intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner was directly measured at baseline, week one, and week eight. CrPic, as compared to placebo, reduced food intake, hunger levels and fat cravings, and tended to decrease body weight. The participants who received CrPic reduced their caloric intake by an average of 365 calories per day between their baseline and final (week eight) visit. These results clinically significant; it is also noteworthy that participants receiving CrPic did not report increased hunger levels despite significantly reducing their food intake.
For Study 2, Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 24 hours and subsequently injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1, 10 or 50mcg/kg CrPic. Subsequently, rats were implanted with an indwelling third ventricular cannula. Following recovery, 0, 0.4, 4 or 40mcg CrPic was injected directly into the brain via the intracerebroventricular cannula, and spontaneous 24-hour food intake was measured. Rats experienced a subtle decrease in food intake at only the highest dose. However, when administered centrally, CrPic dose-dependently decreased food intake, suggesting CrPic has a role in food-intake regulation, which may be mediated by a direct effect on the brain.
Potential applications: Appropriate for weight management, sports nutrition and metabolic health supplements, and functional foods and beverages.
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Vital Stats: Nutratech's Advantra-Z brand Citrus aurantium
Study claim: Advantra-Z brand Citrus aurantium makes exercise less difficult, and it has no side effects.
Published: Haller CA, et al. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008 Jun;65(6):833-40.
Abstract: In clinical trials performed under resting conditions, performance-enhancing supplements raise blood pressure and affect glucose homeostasis, which is not ameliorated by exercise. Performance-enhancing supplement use modestly improves exercise tolerance. Researchers aimed to characterise the pharmacology and performance-enhancing effects of a Citrus aurantium (synephrine) supplement under exercise conditions.
Ten healthy adults (three women) aged 20-31 years participated in a three-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects ingested one dose of a supplement containing 21mg synephrine and 304mg caffeine under resting conditions and one hour prior to moderately intense exercise, with a placebo (PLC)/exercise control. Plasma synephrine and caffeine concentrations were measured over 12 hours, and vital signs, serum electrolytes, oxygen consumption and perceived exercise exertion were monitored.
No significant adverse events occurred. Synephrine and caffeine pharmacokinetics were unaffected by exercise. Post-exercise diastolic blood pressure was higher after taking the supplement (peak mean 71.7 +/- 8.7mmHg) than PLC (63.0 +/- 4.9mmHg). There were no substantial treatment-related differences in post-exercise HR, systolic blood pressure or temperature. Postprandial plasma glucose increased to 121.0 +/- 31.6mg dl(-1) in the treatment group vs 103.7 +/- 25.5mg dl(-1) with PLC and exercise. No treatment differences in exercise-related oxygen consumption, serum lactate or insulin were observed. Exercise was rated less difficult with the supplement than PLC.
Blood pressure and plasma glucose increased post-exercise with synephrine use, which could be detrimental in some people. Exercise was perceived as less strenuous after the supplement, presumably due to the stimulant effects of caffeine.
Potential applications: For sports-nutrition and weight-management supplement formulas.
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