It has long been known that cigarette smoke has catastrophically damaging effects on health. Recognized worldwide as a leading cause of the
most deadly cancers, along with chronic emphysema, pulmonary impairment and cardiovascular disease, smoking is highly addictive and difficult to quit despite knowledge of these deadly health risks. An alarming fact is that the effects of cigarettes through second-hand smoke can damage
even non-smokers, potentially exposing those working in smoke filled environments or living with smokers to similar health risks. A new study in rats by Natreon, Inc. suggests that Capros®, a standardized Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract, is a high potency antioxidant which can combat the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke.
Conducted at the Natreon, Inc. facilities in Kolkata, India and recently published in Pharmacology Online, this study shows that Capros® exerts its protective effect against cigarette smoke induced oxidative damage through its antioxidant agents (gallo-ellagi tannoids).
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of prolonged administration of Phyllanthus emblica (PE) in improving the antioxidant profile of rats, chronically exposed to cigarette smoke with altered health status. The effectiveness of PE fruit extract was compared with a well-established marketed multivitamin-multimineral formulation using the same protocol. Male albino rats were divided into four groups, with Group A exposed to cigarette smoke and administered daily with PE fruit extract, Group B exposed only to cigarette smoke, and Group D
exposed to cigarette smoke and administered daily with the multivitamin. Group C was the control.
PE fruits possess strong antioxidant properties due to the presence of high amounts of low molecular weight hydrolysable (gallo-ellagi) tannoids (65-70%). These tannoids produce a sustained and cascading vitamin C-like effect; but unlike vitamin C, Capros® does not become pro-oxidative in the body. PE fruit extract inhibits lipid peroxidation and boosts the body’s antioxidant defense enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase.
In this particular study, a highly significant deterioration in the health status of rats after sub-chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (Group B) was observed when compared to control animals. These changes were manifested by marked increases in MDA levels of RBC and GST activity in lungs and liver homogenate and concomitant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb) %, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels are used as a convenient index of the lipid peroxidation related oxidative damage of tissues. In the present study, animals administered with PE extract had significantly reduced MDA levels, both in content of Red Blood Cell (RBC) and other tissues, compared to those of only smoke exposed animals, presumably by reducing the oxidative burden by the strong cascading antioxidant action of PE extract. Multivitamin supplementation also improved the antioxidant status of smoke-stressed rats but to a much lesser extent than that exhibited by PE fruit extract.
In addition to the radical scavenging abilities of PE extract, its bioactives may provide additional protection from oxidant-induced injury by increasing the systemic levels of GSH and related enzymes. GSH is an important protective antioxidant in the lungs and its levels are decreased
following inflammation and oxidative stress of lungs increasing the potential for damage to the underlying epithelial cells both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggested that supplementation with PE fruit extract decreased the oxidative stress produced by cigarette smoking and thereby
reduced their damaging effects on vital organs, particularly the lungs, which was reflected by increased levels of GSH in the PE fruit extract treated group. Apart from radical scavenging activity of the phenolic antioxidants, the major bioactives of PE fruit extract can also modulate expression of the rate limiting enzyme for the synthesis of GSH.
About Natreon, Inc.:
Founded in 1998, Natreon, Inc. focuses on developing novel compounds extracted from the traditional botanicals of Ayurvedic medicine. With US headquarters in New Brunswick, NJ and state-of-the-art research facilities in India, Natreon, Inc. has created a broad portfolio of products
and technologies, with compelling intellectual property, that can serve unmet nutritional supplement, functional food, and pharmaceutical market needs. For more information on Natreon, Inc., please visit www.natreoninc.com.
For more information, or to arrange an interview with a company spokesperson, please contact Tamara York at ADinfinitum, 212-693-2150 Ext. 314, email [email protected] or Mary Hilton, 212-693-2150 Ext. 311, email [email protected].