Research Capsule

Consuming 15-30 grams/daily of Hi-maize resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in obese and overweight men—but not in women

Ingredion’s Hi-maize resistant starch

ital Stats: Ingredion’s Hi-maize resistant starch (HAM-RS2), a GRAS-certified dietary fiber ingredient suitable for supplements, foods and beverages. 

Study claim:Consuming 15-30 grams/daily of Hi-maize resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in obese and overweight men—but not in women.

Published:Maki, KC, et al. Resistant starch from high-amylose maize increases insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese men. J Nutr. 2012 Apr; 142(4); 717-23.

Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in participants with waist circumference ≥89 (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Participants received 0 (control starch), 15, or 30 g/d (double-blind) of HAM-RS2 in random order for 4-wk periods separated by 3-wk washouts. Minimal model S(I) was assessed at the end of each period using the insulin-modified i.v. glucose tolerance test. The efficacy evaluable sample included 11 men and 22 women (mean ± SEM) age 49.5 ± 1.6 y, with a BMI of 30.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference 105.3 ± 1.3 cm. A treatment main effect (P = 0.018) and a treatment × sex interaction (P = 0.033) were present. In men, least squares geometric mean analysis for S(I) did not differ after intake of 15 g/d HAM-RS2 (6.90 × 10⁻⁵pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) and 30 g/d HAM-RS2 (7.13 × 10⁻⁵pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹), but both were higher than after the control treatment (4.66 × 10⁻⁵pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) (P < 0.05). In women, there was no difference among the treatments (overall least squares ln-transformed mean ± pooled SEM = 1.80 ± 0.08; geometric mean = 6.05 × 10⁻⁵pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹). These results suggest that consumption of 15-30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves S(I) in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed.

Potential applications: Suitable for foods, this natural resistant starch has more than 350 published studies suitable for on-pack claims such as excellent source of fiber, supports healthy weight levels, healps maintain healthy blood-sugar levels, and gluten-free.

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Biothera’s Wellmune WGP

Vital Stats: Biothera’s Wellmune WGP, a GRAS-certified immunity-balancing ingredient suitable for supplements, foods and beverages. 

Study Claim: Wellmune may decrease the duration and severity of upper respiratory tract infections.

Published:Richard Fuller B, et al. Influence of yeast-derived 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide on circulating cytokines and chemokines with respect to upper respiratory tract infections. Nutrition2012, DOI 10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.012

Abstract:Wellmune WGP is a food supplement containing a refined 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide that improves the antimicrobial activity of the innate immune cells by the priming of lectin sites. This study aimed to investigate whether Wellmune decreases the frequency and severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms over 90 days during the peak URTI season in healthy university students. The secondary aims included an assessment of plasma cytokine and chemokine levels.

METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial lasting 90 days. One hundred healthy individuals (18-65 y old, mean age ~21 y) were randomized to 250 mg of Wellmune once daily or to an identical rice flour-based placebo. Health was recorded daily and two or more reported URTI symptoms for 2 consecutive days triggered a medical assessment and blood collection within 24 hours. The URTI symptom severity was monitored. Plasma cytokines and chemokines were measured at day 0, day 90, and during the confirmed URTI.

RESULTS: Ninety-seven participants completed the trial (Wellmune, n = 48; placebo, n = 49). The Wellmune tended to decrease the total number of days with URTI symptoms (198 d, 4.6%, versus 241 d, 5.5% in the control group, P = 0.06). The ability to "breathe easily" was significantly improved in the Wellmune group; the other severity scores showed no significant difference. Cytokines and chemokines were not different between the groups at study entry or day 90, but monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was lower in the Wellmune group during the URTI.

Potential applications:Suitable for supplements, foods and beverages, Wellmune is an immune-balancing ingredient.

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