Noni: Superfruit or Health Myth?

Many would say that the superfruits industry was ignited by the success of noni juice products. But was this fortune the result of real nutritional value supported by sound scientific evidence, or just clever marketing?

Used for generations as a folk medicine (1,2), noni (Morinda citrifolia L.; Indian mulberry) is known mainly as an ingredient in skin cosmetics and juice. Part of a global $2 billion business achieved in just seven years from inception in 1996 (3), one manufacturer of noni juice reports it has disbursed $1 billion in distributor commissions over its history, with current annual sales of $500 million (4). By these revenues, noni has been commercialized as a model superfruit product with astonishing success.

Grown mainly in Malaysia, French Polynesia and Hawaii, noni belongs to the plant family Rubiaceae having 600 flowering tree and shrub genera of 10,000 species fruiting throughout the year (1,2). Often called the “Coffee Family”, Rubiaceae includes gardenia and popular coffees, such as Coffea arabica.

Noni has a centuries-old history of use as a liniment or commodity of its wood exploited by natives across the Pacific pan-tropics. Now, however, there are over 300 companies worldwide making noni juice (2,3).

An authoritative book on the noni plant and its varied uses was published in 2006 by University of Hawaii plant scientists (5), while some 30 other books exist just on marketing or sales techniques for achieving success in the noni juice business (

Over the past decade, noni has increasingly stimulated interest by botanical and medical scientists, with 123 papers published since 1994 and 53 just in 2006-8 (Ref.6, September 2008). The earliest found is a 1954 report by VH Dang in the French journal, Presse Medicine, entitled Treatment and prevention of hypertension and its cerebral complications by total root extracts of Morinda citrifolia.

Despite these commercial, research and publishing developments, the food and potential health value (nutrient and phytochemical profiles) of noni as a natural food source have not been widely evaluated, nor does a literature-based critical view exist for the numerous health claims made in noni juice marketing.

This essay examines noni for its 1) available nutrient and phytochemical data, 2) medical literature and research directions, 3) health claims, and 4) clinical trial status.

Such an analysis may help illuminate existing and future applications of noni, as well as other superfruits, in nutraceuticals, functional foods and beverages.

Qualitative properties and consumer products

Over history, all parts of the noni tree have been used (1,7), including the fruit and leaves (food, topical medicine), trunk and branches (firewood, tools, construction) and bark or roots (dyes, clothes, liniments). The fruit itself grows from a cluster of flowers called an inflorescence yielding multiple potato-size fruits characterized by a repugnant odor when ripe, earning noni its nickname as “cheese fruit” or even “vomit fruit”. Despite these unpleasant characteristics, noni has been used as a staple food during famine according to Polynesian legends and as a juice in its current most popular format (1-5,7).

Most often traditionally, however, the fruits were not eaten nor was their juice consumed. Rather, the most common use of the plant was for its leaves or immature fruits to be crushed or sliced, then placed on open wounds or infections as a salve (1).

Botanically, the natural foul smell and taste of ripe noni fruit most likely result from aromatic fatty acid esters, and can be interpreted as attractants to bird or animal foragers, such as fruit bats (1,2), that may eat the fruit and help disperse seeds. The odor and noxious taste may also discourage infestations by insect pests. The noni is, nevertheless, susceptible to a variety of pathogens and microbial infections throughout its tree components (1,7,8). These facts lead to speculation that the low antioxidant capacity of noni fruit (discussed below) contributes to its odor by being unable to defend against fatty acid oxidation or invading pests.

Current dietary products using noni fruit include a juice blend, noni-infused carbonated energy drinks, teas, fruit powders for protein and fiber supplements, energy bars, fructose-infused candies, tablets and capsules. Seed oils and skin creams are noni cosmetic products.

Juice is by far the most popular noni product, usually as a purée or blend (89% of total) with those of other more pleasant-tasting fruits like grape, blueberry or raspberry (11%) (4,9). Even with modification by other juices, noni juice is notable for its distinctive smell, taste and brown color, all possibly related to high content of butyric acid or its esters (1,9).

Nutrients in noni fruit powder and juice

Although many undocumented claims for noni having “over 130 nutrients” can be found on the internet, there appears to be no list, scientific validation or peer-assessed publication of such data. Nutritional information for whole noni fruit is limited to a report by the College of Tropical Agriculture, University of Hawaii at Mānoa whose data for fruit powder and pure juice are in Table 1 (10,11).

Noni pulp powder has excellent levels of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, providing 55% and 100% of the Dietary Reference Intakes, respectively. A good source of protein (12% DRI), noni pulp is low in total fats (4%). These macronutrients are for the fruit pulp, whereas processed noni juice has negligible macronutrient value (11, Table 1).

The main micronutrient features of noni pulp powder include exceptional vitamin C content (10x DRI) and significant amounts of niacin (vitamin B3), iron and potassium. Vitamin A, calcium and sodium are also present (Table 1).

When the juice alone is analyzed and compared to pulp powder, only vitamin C is retained at a significant level, 42% of DRI (11) (Table 1). Such micronutrient content is likely inconsistent among manufacturers, however, as there exists variation of mineral densities among different brands of noni juice (12).

Tahitian Noni Juiceâ„¢

Nutrient analyses for the leading brand of noni juice (“Tahitian Noni Juice™”, TNJ) were published in 2002 by the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection (9,13) during a test for public safety of TNJ (Table 2). TNJ ingredients include noni purée and juice concentrates from grapes and blueberries (4,9). For antimicrobial purposes, TNJ must be flash-pasteurized (3 seconds at 87.7° C, ref. 9), likely reducing the juice's nutrient values, evident by the decline of vitamin C in juice to about 4% of the amount seen in pulp powder (Table 1).

Excepting vitamin C content, TNJ bears little nutrition, as it provides just 8% DRI for carbohydrates, only traces of other macronutrients and low or trace levels of vitamins, minerals and amino acids (9,13, Table 2).

Figure 1, Table 2 and Figure 1 present a nutrient profile for TNJ compared to a raw orange and two fruit sources used as juice concentrates to manufacture TNJ -- grapes and blueberries. Having lower carbohydrate content than the other three fruits, TNJ is particularly poor in fats, protein and dietary fiber (Table 2).

Table 1. Macro- and Micronutrient Profiles for Noni Fruit Powder and Pure Juice

Nutrients per 100 g

Fruit Powder


Pure Juice



Carbohydrates, g





Fats, g





Protein, g





Dietary fiber, g





Water, g




Vitamin A, IU





Vitamin C, mg





Niacin, mg





Iron, mg





Calcium, mg





Sodium, mg





Potassium, mg





Data are from the University of Hawaii (10,11) normalized to 100 g of weight

DRI: Dietary Reference Intake, Institute of Medicine, US National Academy of Sciences

- no reference data reported

Table 2. Macronutrient Profiles for Tahitian Noni Juiceâ„¢ (TNJ) vs. an Orange, Red Grapes or Blueberries


per 100 g









Carbohydrates, g



130 g




Fats, g



20-35 g




Protein, g



50 g




Dietary fiber, g



30 g




Data for TNJ are from the Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission for the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General (9), December 2002. DRI: Dietary Reference Intake, Institute of Medicine, US National Academy of Sciences. Data for orange, grapes and blueberries are from World's Healthiest Foods,, normalized to 100 g servings each as fresh fruit.

Although the most significant nutrient feature of noni juice is its vitamin C content (Table 1), the data in Figure 3 show that TNJ provides only about half the vitamin C of a raw navel orange. Sodium levels in TNJ (about 3% DRI), however, are a multiple of the other three fruits. Although the potassium content appears relatively high (often mentioned as a uniquely enriched characteristic of noni), it is only about 3% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (4,700 mg).

Figure 1. Noni juice (black), raw navel orange, grape (purple) and blueberry (blue).

Values for all micronutrients are in mg normalized to 100 grams of fruit (or ml for noni juice). Data are from References 9 and 11 for TNJ and World's Healthiest Foods for navel orange, grape and blueberry,

Adult DRI for vitamin C, calcium, sodium and potassium are 80, 1000, 1500 and 4700 mg (RDA), respectively.

Phytochemical content

The history of published medical research on noni phytochemicals began in the 1950s. Just since 2000, 111 publications have appeared (searched in September 2008), defining a relatively young but active research field.

Except for the cancer studies completed (but unpublished) in phase I human trials, all noni research is at a preliminary stage, still in the laboratory as in vitro or basic animal experiments. By contrast, phytochemical studies for two fruit constituents of blended noni juice -- grapes and blueberries -- number in the thousands for grapes beginning around 1920 and over 200 reports for blueberries starting in the 1950s. For clinical trial activity, together, these two berry species have stimulated 25 current NIH-reviewed projects (September, 2008,

Accordingly, much less science is known about noni compared to more common fruits. Even though grapes and blueberries have been studied with greater intensity than noni and are involved in more clinical trials, they still do not bear conclusive proof for human health benefits. There are no health claims approved yet for any of these three fruits.

Current dietary research on other superfruits is predominated by studies of antioxidant phytochemicals (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and key health nutrients like essential vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids (14).

For noni, however, these same research directions have not been undertaken, nor do they exist as marketing positions. Instead, there are investigations for (6,15)

  • oligo- and polysaccharides – long-chain sugar molecules that serve a prebiotic function as dietary fiber fermentable by colonic bacteria, yielding short-chain fatty acids with numerous potential health properties (16)
  • glycosides – sugar-phenolic compounds, including antioxidant flavonoids such as rutin, americanin, luteolin, asperulosidic acid, are common in several Rubiaceae plants; specifically named isolates called iridoides and morindoides have been reported for noni, but are not well characterized to date
  • trisaccharide fatty-acid esters, “noniosides” - resulting from combination of an alcohol and an acid in noni fruit, noniosides are chemicals contributing to noni's characteristic noxious smell and taste
  • scopoletin – some evidence for antibiotic activities; research is preliminary
  • beta-sitosterol – a plant sterol with potential for anti-cholesterol activity
  • damnacanthal – an anthraquinone (below) having potential as an inhibitor of HIV viral proteins
  • alkaloids – naturally occurring amines from plants, often attributed to causing bitter tastes and the foul odor and taste of noni juice. Some internet references promote xeronine or proxeronine as important noni constituents, an unscientific statement deemed “outrageous” by a botanical specialist on noni (1) because no reports on either of these substances exist in published medical literature; the terms xeronine and proxeronine do not exist in science.

Nearly all these compounds occur in many plants, and so are not unique to noni. Although there is evidence from in vitro studies and animal models for bioactivity of noni phytochemicals (15), such as immune-stimulating and anti-cancer effects (discussed below), the research remains preliminary for concluding anything about human health benefits provided by noni, its raw juice or TNJ, as stated by others (1,2,5,7,8,17).

It is valid to conclude, therefore, based on the above, that research has not yet revealed noni phytochemicals having significant promise as health-promoting agents or nutraceutical extracts.

Noni anthraquinones

Rubiaceae plants, the family to which Morinda citrifolia (noni) belongs, have anthraquinones in their fruit, roots and leaves (1,5). These chemicals have potential to be modified as therapeutic agents, yet possess toxicity in animals (1,18-20).

There remains debate about whether anthraquinones survive the processing of noni fruit into commercial noni juices such as TNJ, as there are reports of no presence (9,21) while others discussed potential anthraquinone toxicity from consuming noni juice (22).

In laboratory animal or in vitro studies, anthraquinones have anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities (18-20). Anthraquinone studies remain preliminary and do not offer conclusive evidence for having either positive or negative effects from consuming noni juice.

Nevertheless, promotional literature from noni juice manufacturers can be readily found stating that anthraquinones “stimulate activity of the entire digestive process”, are “effective for pain relief” and can be used as a “supplement in numerous health conditions.” Such statements are scientifically baseless.

Antioxidant strength

Noni skin and pulp have little pigmentation and there is no compelling evidence for phytochemicals in sufficient chemical structure or concentration to afford antioxidant benefits. One must conclude the antioxidant strength of pure noni fruit or juice is insignificant.

However, numerous internet marketing websites promote noni juice antioxidants with strength in a broad range to as high as 45,000 ORAC units per 100 g, values that would be above all 277 common plant foods reported to date (23). No scientific reports exist for ORAC in noni pulp or juice, and preliminary claims of substantial antioxidant activity in TNJ (15) are neither published under peer-review nor confirmed by other investigators.

For whatever value noni juice has as ORAC, this quality must derive mainly from the antioxidant vitamin C and additive blueberry juice concentrate employed in the blend, as blueberries have significant ORAC value of 6552 TE units per 100 g (23). The USDA database on antioxidant strength of plant foods also demonstrates that all food sources analyzed have phenolics and ORAC value (23), indicating that noni probably contains antioxidant phytochemicals in some quantity that could be determined by an assay for total phenolics, but this research apparently has not been done.

Validation and standardization of phenolic, carotenoid or ORAC values for noni juices by independent contract assays or peer-reviewed research are needed to give consumers knowledge of the true antioxidant capacity of noni juice products.

Concluding this section on phytochemicals, although noni juice marketers emphasize their product is antioxidant-rich with health properties, there remains no physiological rationale or scientific evidence to support this position. Only vitamin C content would add appreciably to the nutritional and antioxidant value of pure noni juice (Table 1).

The conclusion is consistent with the summary for noni as an investigative herb provided on the website of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NCCAM, of the US National Institutes of Health (24) and with previous scientific assessments of noni as a possible medicinal plant (1,5,17). There is no mention in these references for noni as an antioxidant food source.

Advisories about toxicity status of noni juice in Europe

In 2003, the European Scientific Committee on Food declared noni juice safe for human consumption, having the provision that no accompanying health claims made by manufacturers were validated by their assessment (25).

Two years later, however, Austrian reports (three cases studies; 22,26) on liver toxicity were linked to use of noni juice, provoking withdrawal of TNJ from the EU market in 2005. The withdrawal was based on potential for chronic noni juice consumption to induce liver and possibly kidney disorders. Further reports from Germany and Spain (27,28) since then provided clinical evidence for hepatotoxicity resulting from excessive noni juice consumption.

Other food safety authorities in Ireland, France and Finland have warned consumers about potential toxicity from consuming noni juice (29-31). Subsequent evaluation in late 2006 by the UK Food Safety Authority (FSA), however, concluded that TNJ provided no discernible threat to health under the dietary uses recommended by the manufacturer (32). While noni juice sales were freed for the EU market again in 2006, there remains active surveillance of the toxicity status of noni juices by the FSA (33).

Reported in 2006, researchers from Tahitian Noni International, Inc. (TNI), manufacturer of TNJ, found no evidence for toxicity in human subjects consuming high daily doses of TNJ (34).

Despite several European countries having noni juice under warning for potential toxicity (29-31,35), sales are growing across Europe and other world regions.

Unsubstantiated health claims evoke United States FDA warnings

Due to baseless health claims and exaggerated advertising about nutritional and healing properties, marketers and distributors of noni juice products have caught the attention of the FDA since 2002. Three companies have been issued warning letters for violating section 201(g)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) [21 U.S.C. § 321(g)(1)] with exaggerations or misleading statements about the health benefits of noni juice in marketing literature, on their websites or on product labels.

In 2004, one manufacturer was warned (36) that its numerous marketed health claims for Pure Hawaiian Noni Juice were violations of the Act and could lead consumers to believe the juice had drug properties such as the following

  • lowers high blood pressure
  • relieves arthritis
  • eliminates gastric ulcers
  • prevents mental depression
  • lessens atherosclerosis
  • helps drug addiction
  • heals burns
  • inhibits pre-cancerous cell growth
  • decreases chest infections
  • improves eye infections
  • eliminates mouth and throat infections
  • decreases skin infections

Similar letters were issued to other distributors in 2002 and 2006 (38,39).

Other unsupportable claims of health benefits from consuming noni juice can be found

  • “enhances the healing process”
  • “strengthens and supports the immune system”
  • “a powerful catalyst with other nutrients”
  • “acts directly on the body's cells, opening up the cell wall to allow more nutrient absorption and increase cell health”
  • “a miracle tonic”

One marketer claimed “50 doctors monitoring approximately 10,000 patients” demonstrated that his company's brand of noni juice helped restore health in over 27 diseases.

No science supporting these claims has actually been conducted with publications under expert review.

"There is no scientific evidence available to justify claims that noni juice confers special health benefits or that it cures or prevents diseases and medical conditions," said Dr. Pat O'Mahony in 2004, chief specialist in biotechnology for the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (29). "Our concern is that consumers may be misled by these scientifically unsubstantiated health claims in contravention of the EU labeling directive".

Research trends and potential health benefits

A review of the current medical literature on noni (PubMed, 2005-September 2008) does show an interesting range of basic research topics under study including

  • anti-inflammatory actions in vitro
  • anti-cancer effects in vitro
  • antioxidant activity in vitro
  • wound healing in laboratory animals
  • mutagenicity and genotoxicity in vitro and in animal models
  • presence and potential significance of anthraquinones, including damnacanthal
  • chemical isolation of chemical constituents, such as phenolics, a lignan, oligosaccharide esters, polysaccharides, iridoid glycosides and fatty acids
  • immune-stimulating properties in vitro
  • anti-bacterial effects in vitro
  • anti-bacterial effects in cattle in vivo

Anti-cancer evidence

Probably the most promising research direction for noni has been its potential chemopreventive effect evaluated at the College of Medicine, University of Hawaii since 1994 (39,40), showing

1) polysaccharides extracted from noni juice could inhibit lung tumors in mice, producing a cure rate of up to 45% in this laboratory model, and

2) the polysaccharide-rich fraction had positive synergistic effects in vitro when combined with other chemotherapeutics including cisplatin, adriamycin, vincristine or camptothecin, yet was not effective in combination with all established chemotherapies.

While there appears to be no further basic cancer work from this research group since 2004, published this year were other studies by the same authors (41) showing that noni juice polysaccharides were ineffective in a mouse model of pulmonary oxygen toxicity.

To summarize, although there is preliminary evidence for anti-cancer activity of noni juice constituents, the findings to date are only in mouse or in vitro models, so they remain inconclusive about human applications.

Such a relatively undeveloped research base for noni having anti-cancer effects can be contrasted with the decades-long efforts in basic research and human studies to test putative benefits of green tea, tomato lycopene or dietary fiber.

Each of these food sources, however, has recently been denied full claim status as an anti-cancer agent by the FDA due to insufficient scientific evidence for lowering disease risk, although qualified claims have been allowed (42). Such stringent regulatory reviews provide a road map of research for noni and other superfruits to gain eventual approval as dietary agents against disease (14).

NCCAM and clinical trial status

The US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NCCAM (, also monitors clinical applications of natural products for disease treatment.

Of interest in support of further noni research, NCCAM has created a web page on which it states the National Cancer Institute is financing further studies of noni's possible effects against breast cancer (24).

There has been only one NCCAM-approved human clinical trial on noni as a Phase 1 study to evaluate safety, dose range, and potential side effects (43). Conducted at the Cancer Research Center of the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, the study results were completed in June 2006 but have not yet been published either on the NCCAM website or in peer-reviewed literature.

The study design was to

1) examine the maximum tolerated dose of capsules containing 500 mg of freeze-dried noni fruit extract, 2) define toxicities associated with ingestion of noni, 3) collect preliminary information on the efficacy of noni in respect to anti-tumor and symptom control properties to help select specific patients for subsequent Phase 2 studies, and 4) identify chemical constituents of noni extract that can be used to characterize bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of noni as a food supplement.

A different pilot study of noni juice consumption for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides in smokers, sponsored by Tahitian Noni International, Inc. and conducted at the University of Illinois, was reported at a meeting of the American Heart Association in 2006 (44). These results were statistically inconclusive and have not been published as a complete research report.

To date, these appear to be the only peer-reviewed human studies of noni in the United States. As no other expert-reviewed clinical trials are published, we must conclude that no acceptable scientific evidence exists for noni as a dietary therapy against any human abnormality or disease.

Status as an antioxidant superfruit

Noni has been included in discussions of antioxidant superfruits in the functional food industry since 2005 (14). One must question whether noni qualifies, however, as it is not pigment-rich to afford meaningful antioxidant qualities, has not been shown with certainty to have significant antioxidant capacity and is not invested with significant nutrient or phytochemical content. By measure of current evidence from medical research on its nutrient or phytochemical composition, noni as a food source bears little promise for positively impacting human health.

Where noni does have significance is in its marketing and commercial prosperity. Its worldwide number of consumer products (more than 300 in 70+ countries) and collective multibillion dollar sales underscore a highly profitable fruit product – certainly a commercial phenomenon that has earned its place among currently discussed superfruits.

One must ask, however: super in health value, or just super-marketed?


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2. Noni article on Wikipedia,

3. Tahitian Noni International, Success of Nature, The (April 2004)

4. Tahitian Noni International website --

5. Nelson SC, Elevitch CR. Noni: The Complete Guide for Consumers and Growers, Permanent Agriculture Resources (August 2006);, search books for “noni”

6. PubMed,, search “noni” or “morinda citrifolia”.

7. The Noni Website, University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources,

8. McClatchey WC. Diversity of growth forms and uses in the Morinda citrofolia L. complex. Proceedings of the 2002 Hawaii Noni Conference, SC Nelson (Ed.), University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, pp.5-10, 2003;;

9. European Commission, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Tahitian Noni Juice (December 2002)

10. University of Hawaii, nutritional analysis of noni fruit powder,

11. University of Hawaii, nutritional analysis of pure noni juice,;

12. West BJ, Tolson CB, Vest RG, Jensen S, Lundell TG. Mineral variability among 177 commercial noni juices. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2006 Nov-Dec;57(7-8):556-8.

13. European Commission, Scientific Committee on Food, evaluation of Tahitian Noni Juice, table of nutrient composition,

14. Gross PM. Tracking market meteors: exotic superfruits, Natural Products Insider, November 2007,

15. Wang MY, West BJ, Jensen CJ, Nowicki D, Chen S, Palu AK, Anderson G. Morinda citrifolia (Noni): a literature review and recent advances in Noni research, Acta Pharmacol Sin 2002 Dec; 23(12):1127-1141.

16. Teglund BC, Myers D. Nondigestible oligo- and polysaccharides (dietary fiber): their physiology and role in human health and food. Comprehen Rev Food Sci Food Safety 2002, 1:73-92.

17. Anthony M. Noni or NIMBY?

18. Singh R; Geetanjali, Chauhan SM. 9,10-Anthraquinones and other biologically active compounds from the genus Rubia. Chem Biodivers. 2004 Sep;1(9):1241-64.

19. Anthraquinones, Wikipedia,

20. Pawlus AD, Su BN, Keller WJ, Kinghorn AD. An anthraquinone with potent quinone reductase-inducing activity and other constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni). J Nat Prod. 2005 Dec;68(12):1720-2.

21. Westendorf J, Effenberger K, Iznaguen H, Basar S. Toxicological and analytical investigations of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24;55(2):529-37.

22. Stadlbauer V, Fickert P, Lackner C, Schmerlaib J, Krisper P, Trauner M, Stauber RE. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: report of two cases. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Aug 14;11(30):4758-60.

23. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of 277 Selected Foods – November 2007,

24. National Center on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NCCAM, US National Institutes of Health, web page on noni,

25. Regulation of the European Commission, No 258/97 of the European Parliament on noni juice as a novel food (June 2003),

26. Millonig G, Stadlmann S, Vogel W. Herbal hepatotoxicity: acute hepatitis caused by a Noni preparation (Morinda citrifolia). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Apr;17(4):445-7; c); d).

27. Yuce B, Gulberg V, Diebold J, Gerbes AL. Hepatitis induced by Noni juice from Morinda citrifolia: a rare cause of hepatotoxicity or the tip of the iceberg? Digestion. 2006;73(2-3):167-70

28. Lopez-Cepero Andrada JM, Lerma Castilla S, Fernandez Olvera MD, Amaya Vidal A. Hepatotoxicity caused by a Noni (Morinda citrifolia) preparation. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2007 Mar;99(3):179-81.

29. Food Safety Authority of Ireland warns of unsubstantiated claims on noni juice (2004),

30. France warns consumers off noni juice (2005),

31. Finland's National Food Agency warns about illegal noni products (2006),; 21

32. European Food Safety Authority re-assesses safety of noni juice (January 2007),

33. UK Food Standards Agency, search on noni articles (August 2007),

34. West BJ, Jensen CJ, Westendorf J. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jun 14;12(22):3616-9.

35. UK Food Standards Agency calls for comments on noni juice approval (July 2006),

36. FDA warning letter to Flora Inc. (August 2004),

37. FDA warning letter to Hawaiian Island Noni (July 2002),

38. FDA warning letter to Perfect Health Inc. (September 2006),

39. Hirazumi A, Furusawa E, Chou SC, Hokama Y. Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) on intraperitoneally implanted Lewis lung carcinoma in syngeneic mice. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 1994;37:145-6

40. Furusawa E, Hirazumi A, Story S, Jensen J. Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice. Phytother Res. 2003 Dec;17(10):1158-6441.

41. Berg JT, Furusawa E. Failure of juice or juice extract from the noni plant (Morinda citrifolia) to protect rats against oxygen toxicity. Hawaii Med J. 2007 Feb;66(2):41-4.

42. FDA denial applications for full health claim approvals for green tea, tomato lycopene and dietary fiber as preventative against cancer, FDA Qualified Health Claims Guidance (July 2007),

43. NIH-NCCAM trial, Study of noni in cancer patients (2001-2006),

44. Boyles S. Noni juice: can it lower cholesterol? WebMD (March 2006),

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