The dietary reference intake of vitamin D should be dramatically increased, according to the Council for Responsible Nutrition.
Responding to an Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board review of DRIs, CRN vice president, scientific & regulatory affairs Andrew Shao said the most recent FNB recommendations for vitamin D intake, established in 1997 and ranging from 200 to 600 IU/day, were "woefully outdated."
"These recommendations appear to have been based on avoidance of rickets or osteomalacia — diseases of overt vitamin D deficiency," wrote Shao. "Since that time, a plethora of new data has been collected and published indicating a need for a prompt revision of these recommendations.
"New recommendations must go beyond avoidance of diseases of overt deficiency affecting only bone related outcomes, and must address avoidance of long-term inadequacy or insufficiency, a consequence of which may be increased risk for several chronic diseases."
Data published over the past ten years suggested low vitamin D intake was associated with increased risk for falls in the elderly, cardiovascular disease, immune disorders, certain types of cancers and diabetes, he said.
Instead, the DRI should be set "somewhere at or above 1,000 IU per day".
Shao also called for the upper tolerable intake level for vitamin D, again set in 1997, to be increased fivefold from its current level of 2,000 IU a day.
"A number of well conducted randomised trials have been published involving vitamin D doses that far exceed the current UL, all with no adverse effects," he wrote in the CRN's submission.
"The literature also includes a number of case reports of vitamin D toxicity. When and where assessed, these case reports all reveal vitamin D doses in excess of 100,000 IU/day equivalent?are needed to evoke toxicity. In a recent literature review and risk assessment, a new vitamin D UL of 10,000 IU was proposed. This risk assessment represents a much more accurate view of the current literature than what the FNB evaluated more than ten years ago."