Vital stats: Fuji Health Sciences AstaREAL brand astaxanthin
Study claim: AstaREAL lowered triglycerides and raised HDL cholesterol levels in humans.
Published: Yoshida H, et al. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 2009 Oct 14.
Abstract: Astaxanthin has been reported to improve dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in animals, but such effects in humans are not well known. In a placebo-controlled, randomised trial, researchers administered astaxanthin at doses of 0, 6, 12 and 18mg/day for 12 weeks to 61 nonobese subjects 25-to-60 years old, who had fasting serum triglyceride levels of 120-200mg/dl and were without diabetes and hypertension.
In before and after tests, body mass index (BMI) and LDL-cholesterol were unaffected at all doses; however, triglyceride levels decreased, while HDL-cholesterol levels increased significantly. Multiple comparison tests showed that 12 and 18mg/day doses significantly reduced triglyceride, and 6 and 12mg doses significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. Serum adiponectin — a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism — was increased by astaxanthin (12 and 18mg/day), and changes of adiponectin correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol changes independent of age and BMI. Results suggest that astaxanthin consumption ameliorates triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol in correlation with increased adiponectin in humans.
Potential applications: This antioxidant ingredient is suitable for blending for use in softgel capsules, two-piece hard shells, tablets, powdered drinks and bars.
Vital Stats: Kyowa Hakko's Cognizin brand citicoline
Study CLAIM: Cognizin affects subjects' appetite markers in response to seeing pictures of high-calorie foods.
Published: Killgore WD, et al. Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods. Int J Eat Disord 2010 Jan;43(1):6-13.
Abstract: Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive-enhancing, neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings. The effects of this compound are unknown on appetite, food cravings and brain responses to food — the so-called cortico-limbic response.
Researchers compared the effects of treatment with Cognizin brand citicoline (500mg/day vs 2,000mg/day) for six weeks on 16 healthy adults ranging from 40 to 57 years of age and across a range of Body Mass Index values from 20 to 38. Researchers looked at changes in appetite ratings, weight and corticolimbic responses to images of high-calorie foods using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
After six weeks, there was no significant change in weight status, although significant declines in appetite ratings were observed for the 2,000mg/day group. The higher-dose group also showed significant increases in functional brain responses to food stimuli within the amygdala, insula and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Increased activation in these regions correlated with declines in appetite ratings. These preliminary findings suggest a potential usefulness of citicoline in modulating appetite, but further research is warranted.
Potential applications: Already known as an ingredient to support cognitive function, Cognizin could become part of the arsenal to support weight management. Suitable for supplements.
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