Research capsule

CarnipureVital stats: Lonza's Carnipure brand L-carnitine L-tartrate

Study claim: Carnipure tartrate, a stable salt of L-carnitine, cuts oxidative stress following exercise.

Published: Spiering BA, et al. Effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on muscle oxygenation responses to resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2008 Jul;22(4):1130-5.

Abstract: Previous research has shown that L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) supplementation beneficially affects markers of hypoxic stress following resistance exercise. For the athlete, this means muscle damage, muscle soreness and reduced performance. Any attenuation of muscle hypoxia would therefore contribute to a faster and better recovery from exercise. However, the mechanism of this response is unclear. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of LCLT supplementation on muscle-tissue oxygenation during and after multiple sets of squat exercise.

Nine healthy, previously resistance-trained men (25.2 +/- six years, 91.2 +/- 10.2kg) ingested 2g/day LCLT or placebo for 23 days in a randomised, balanced, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study design. On day 21, forearm-muscle oxygenation was measured during and after an upper-arm occlusion protocol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which measures the balance of oxygen delivery in relation to oxygen consumption. On day 22, subjects performed five sets of 15 to 20 repetitions of squat exercise with corresponding measures of thigh-muscle oxygenation, via NIRS, and serial blood draws.

Compared to the placebo trial, muscle oxygenation was reduced in the LCLT trial during upper-arm occlusion, and following each set of resistance exercise. Despite reduced oxygenation, plasma malondealdehyde, a marker of membrane damage, was attenuated during the LCLT trial. There were no differences between trials in the vasoactive substance prostacyclin.

In conclusion, because oxygen delivery was occluded during the forearm protocol, it is proposed that enhanced oxygen consumption mediated the reduced-muscle oxygenation during the LCLT trial. Enhanced oxygen consumption would explain why hypoxic stress was attenuated with LCLT supplementation.

Potential applications: Carnipure is a suitable exercise-recovery supplemental ingredient.

More info:
+1 201 316 9304

5-LoxinVital stats: PL Thomas' 5-Loxin brand Boswellia serrata extract

Study claim: 5-Loxin relieves symptoms of arthritis of the knee.

Published: Sengupta K, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Res Ther 2008 Jul 30;10(4):R85.

Abstract: 5-Loxin is a novel Boswellia serrata extract enriched with 30 per cent 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), which exhibits potential anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. A 90-day, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee.

Seventy-five OA patients received either 100mg (n = 25) or 250mg (n = 25) 5-Loxin daily or a placebo (n = 25) for 90 days. Each patient was evaluated for pain and physical functions by using the standard tools (visual analog scale, Lequesne's Functional Index and WOMAC Index) at baseline and days seven, 30, 60 and 90. The cartilage degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-3 was also evaluated in synovial fluid from OA patients. Measurement of a battery of biochemical parameters in serum and haematological parameters, and urine analysis were performed to evaluate the safety of 5-Loxin(R) in OA patients.

Seventy patients completed the study. At the end of the study, both doses of 5-Loxin conferred clinically and statistically significant improvements in pain scores and physical function scores in OA patients.

Interestingly, significant improvements in pain score and functional ability were recorded in the treatment group supplemented with 250mg 5-Loxin as early as seven days after the start of treatment. Corroborating the improvements in pain scores in treatment groups, researchers also noted significant reduction in synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3. In comparison with placebo, the safety parameters were almost unchanged in the treatment groups.

5-Loxin reduces pain and improves physical functioning significantly in OA patients, and it is safe for human consumption. 5-Loxin may exert its beneficial effects by controlling inflammatory responses through reducing pro-inflammatory modulators, and it may improve joint health by reducing the enzymatic degradation of cartilage in OA patients.

Potential applications: 5-LOXIN is for tablets, capsules, softgels and powdered drink mixes. It is not GRAS, so it's for supplements targeting inflammation and/or joint health.

More info:
+1 973 984 0900

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