Vital stats: Cyanotech's BioAstin brand astaxanthin.
Study claim: Astaxanthin attenuates age-related muscle loss
Published: Shibaguchi T, et al. Effect of long-term dietary astaxanthin intake on sarcopenia. Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med 2008;57:541-52.
Abstract: Oxidative stress is thought to be a significant contributing factor of age-related sarcopenia. Researchers tested the hypothesis that long-term dietary antioxidant (astaxanthin) intake attenuates sarcopenia. Wistar strain male rats, aged 45 weeks old, were given either control or astaxanthin feed at a low level of 0.004 per cent of their daily feed for one year. Significant improvements in the treatment group were found including increased muscle weight as well as the muscle-weight-to-body-weight ratio. Specifically, the soleus muscle weight and muscle-weight-to-body-weight ratios in the astaxanthin group were significantly higher than in the control group, but tibialis anterior muscle mass was similar between the two dietary groups. The level of ubiquitinated proteins was significantly lower in the soleus muscles of the astaxanthin group, but not in the tibialis anterior muscles when compared with the control group. Tibialis anterior levels of cathepsin L, especially, and caspase-3 tended to be lower in the astaxanthin group than in the control group. Cathepsin L levels were significantly lower. No differences between the control and astaxanthin groups were observesd in soleus levels. There were no significant differences in astaxanthin supplementation on calpain 1 and 2, UBC3B, Cu/Zn SOD, and nitrotyrosine levels in either soleus or tibialis anterior muscles.
Data suggest that long-term dietary astaxanthin intake attenuates age-related muscle atrophy, due in part to reduction in ubiquitination of myofibrillar protein in slow soleus muscles, but not in fast tibialis anterior muscles. These results confirm a pre-clinical trial conducted in 2005 that demonstrated similar results.
Potential applications: BioAstin Natural Astaxanthin has demonstrated effectiveness in clinical research in several areas closely associated with ageing, such as skin ageing, cardiovascular health, eye and brain health, as well as an anti-inflammatory for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis and joint soreness due to exercise.
Vital stats: GanedenBC30 probiotic strain of Bacillus coagulans
Study claim: GanedenBC30 is safe for human consumption.
Published: Endres JR, et al. Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient. Food Chem Toxicol 2009 Jun;47(6):1231-8.
Abstract: It has been demonstrated that some strains of Bacillus coagulans can survive extremes of heat, acidity of the stomach and bile acids, to which commonly consumed probiotics are susceptible. A toxicological safety assessment was performed on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans - GanedenBC30 - a novel probiotic. Seven toxicologic studies were conducted and included: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay; in vitro chromosomal aberration assay; micronucleus assay in mice; acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity studies conducted in Wistar Crl:(WI) BR rats; and acute eye and skin-irritation studies conducted in rabbits. The results of this toxicological safety assessment indicate that GanedenBC30 B. coagulans does not demonstrate mutagenic, clastogenic, or genotoxic effects. Furthermore, the results of the acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats resulted in the conclusion of a NOAEL greater than 1,000mg/kg per day. Because the concentration of the cell mass used in the 90-day study was 1.36 x 10(11) CFUs/g, this corresponds to 95.2 x 10(11) CFUs for a 70kg human, and because the suggested human dose is in the range of 100 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(9) CFUs, this gives a safety factor ranging from 3,173 to 95,200 times. Based upon scientific procedures and supported by history of use, GanedenBC30 is considered safe for chronic human consumption.
Potential applications: GanedenBC30 probiotics are suitable for beverages and food, in particular baked goods because they can survive the baking process - and also bars, sports drinks, soups and frozen yoghurts. Conditions they target include digestion, IBS, Crohn's, bone health and immunity.