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Articles from 2000 In January


Delicious Living

February 1, 2000

Study Shows that Tocotrienol Prevents Development of Increased Blood Pressure

January 31st, 2000

High blood pressure, or hypertension, has been called the “silent killer” because it often causes no symptoms, but can lead to various serious conditions such as heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and severe organ damage to the brain, and eyes, especially with other risk factors. High blood pressure is defined in an adult with a blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg systolic pressure or greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg diastolic pressure.

High blood pressure can occur in children and adults but is particularly prevalent in middle-aged, elderly people and obese people. Individuals with diabetes or kidney disease have a greater frequency of hypertension.

In the US, high blood pressure (HBP) was listed as the primary cause of death of 42,565 Americans in 1997. In addition, HBP was listed as a contributing cause of death in about 210,000 of more than 2 million US deaths that year. A study carried out by the American Heart Association showed that about 50 million Americans age 6 and older have HBP, roughly one in every 5 Americans.

Once you have developed HBP, there is usually no cure. Some people can control their blood pressure by exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy eating habit and weight, and not smoking. However, many need to take medication (drugs such as diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, etc) to keep their blood pressure in a healthy range. Treatment generally must be carried out for life. If treatment with this synthetic drug is stopped, the pressure may rise again. There are side effects associated with these synthetic drugs such as swelling in the legs, headache or dizziness. This resulted in HBP patients seeking out alternative natural medications that may be able to control their condition without these adverse side effects.

A recent animal study published in the Clin. Exp. Hypertens. in November 1999 showed that a natural vitamin E, tocotrienol, found in the highest concentration in palm oil, has the ability to prevent the development of increased blood pressure after supplementation for 3 months. In the study, besides reducing blood pressure, gamma-tocotrienol was found to also reduce the lipid peroxides in plasma and blood vessels and enhanced plasma total antioxidant status including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.

The study was carried out with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), comparing them with normal Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. SHR were divided into three groups and treated with different dosage of gamma-tocotrienol (gamma1 : 15mg/kg diet, gamma2 : 30mg/kg diet, gamma3 : 150mg/kg diet). Normal WKY and untreated SHR were used as normal (N) and hypertensive control (HC). Blood pressure were measured every fortnightly for three months. At the end of the trial, animals were killed and measurement of plasma total antioxidant, plasma superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxides levels in plasma and blood vessels were carried out. All tocotrienol treated SHR have reduced plasma lipid peroxides compared to the normal and non-treated SHR group but was only significant for group gamma1 (gamma1 : 0.109±0.026, HC : 0.132 ± 0.008; p = 0.034). On the other hand lipid peroxides in blood vessels in all treated groups showed a significant reduction (gamma1 : p < 0.05; gamma2 : p < 0.001; gamma3 : p < 0.005). Plasma total antioxidant activity including SOD activity was significantly improved in all treated groups. Correlation studies showed that total antioxidant status and SOD were significantly negatively correlated with blood pressure in normal rats (p = 0.007; p = 0.008) but not in SHR control. This correlation regained in all the three groups SHR’s after treatment with tocotrienol. Lipid peroxides in blood vessel and plasma showed a positive correlation with blood pressure in normal and SHR control. This correlation also remains in treated groups significantly except that in gamma3 where positive correlation with plasma lipid peroxide was not significant. In summary, the study found that antioxidant supplementation with tocotrienol may prevent development of increased blood pressure, reduce lipid peroxides in plasma and blood vessels and enhanced plasma total antioxidant status.

Tocotrienol may be a new word to many. It sounds much like the more familiar “tocopherol”. Indeed, tocotrienols are related to tocopherols. Both tocotrienols and tocopherols are Vitamin E. Tocotrienols differ from tocopherols in their molecular structure only by having an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain. Tocopherols have saturated side chain, ie : lacking double bonds. Tocotrienols are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, with the highest concentration found in palm oil. They are also found in grains such as barley, rice bran, oats, etc.

The above study showed that tocotrienol may hold potential as a natural compound to maintain a healthy blood pressure. Hence, the role of tocotrienols in the prevention of cardiovascular disease may have significant clinical implications. Additional studies on its mechanism of action, as well as long term intervention studies are needed to clarify its function.

Individuals who are diagnosed with high blood pressure and who are interested in maintaining a healthy blood pressure as part of a long term nutritional plan, may want to consider taking the natural tocotrienols vitamin E. Most of the tocotrienols supplements in the market contain typically 30 – 50mg of tocotrienols per capsules.

Delicious Living

ARCHIVE: Grilled Grouper with Tomato & Corn Salsa

Makes 4 servings Prep Time: 15 minutes Marinating Time: 30 minutes Cooking Time: 12 - 14 Minutes

Salsa:
1 cup diced tomatoes
1 cup cooked corn kernels
1 tablespoon chopped red onion
1 tablespoon chopped fresh cilantro
1/2 teaspoon sugar
1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
1/8 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
1-2 drops jalapeño pepper sauce
2 tablespoons fresh lime juice

Grilled Grouper:
1/4 cup freshly squeezed lime juice
1 teaspoon minced garlic
4 tablespoons chopped fresh cilantro
2 teaspoons olive oil
4 half-pound grouper fillets
1/8 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

1. In a medium bowl, mix all the salsa ingredients and allow flavors to blend at room temperature for at least 30 minutes.
2. Meanwhile, in a large shallow dish, combine the lime juice, garlic, cilantro and olive oil. Season the grouper with salt and pepper and allow the fillets to marinate in the mixture for 20 minutes in the refrigerator.
3. Grill the fillets over medium-high heat for 6-7 minutes per side, until the fish flakes easily.
4. Transfer the grilled grouper to 4 serving plates and top with the room-temperature tomato and corn salsa.


Calories 272,Fat 5,Perfat 15,Cholesterol 83,Carbo 14,Protein 46,Fiber N/A,Sodium N/A

Delicious Living

ARCHIVE: Black Bean & Papaya Salsa with Grilled Halibut

Black Bean & Papaya Salsa with Grilled Halibut
January, 2000

Serves 4 Prep Time: 15 minutes Marinating Time: 20 minutes Cooking Time: 20 minutes

Salsa:
1/2 cup diced onion
2 tablespoons olive oil
1/2 cup seeded and diced red bell pepper
1/4 cup diced celery
1/8 teaspoon ground cumin
1/8 teaspoon chili powder
1/8 teaspoon ground red pepper
Salt and black pepper to taste
1/2 cup cooked black beans
2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
1 cup diced papaya

Grilled Halibut:
2 teaspoons sesame oil
4 half-pound halibut fillets
1 tablespoon coarse kosher salt
Freshly ground pepper
1/4 cup grated orange zest

1. Lightly brown the onion in the olive oil over medium-high heat, then stir in the bell pepper, celery, cumin and spices. Sauté for 1 minute.
2. Transfer to a stainless steel bowl, and season with salt and pepper. Add the cooked black beans and all remaining ingredients, tossing to combine. Chill.
3. Pour the sesame oil over the halibut fillets and season with salt and pepper. Top with the grated zest and chill in refrigerator for 20 minutes.
4. Grill halibut for 6-7 minutes each side, or until it flakes with a fork. Top each fillet with 1/4 cup chilled salsa.
Note: If you are making this salsa ahead of time, add the papaya immediately before serving.

Calories 392,Fat 15,Perfat 34,Cholesterol 73,Carbo 13,Protein 50,Fiber N/A,Sodium N/A

 

Delicious Living

Salsas and Chutneys

Salsas and Chutneys
by John DeMers

Salsas and chutneys: The first means nothing but "sauce," and the second is little more than Grandma's fruit preserves. Yet to modern diners, the mere mention of salsas and chutneys is an invitation to adventure in an exotic land.

The near fetish many restaurants now exhibit for salsas and chutneys speaks of their love of ethnicity itself. New World eateries that wouldn't give Grandma the time of day will bend their prep cooks over backwards to knock out a chutney. Or, if the chef wants to play Southwestern for the night, he or she can mix almost anything with a few tomatoes, hot peppers and a cooldown of cilantro — and a salsa is born.

Apart from appearances, however, salsas and chutneys offer the home cook-explorer a none-too-difficult chance to show off; not to mention a generally healthy alternative to the rich sauces Europe has long applied to nearly anything that could be slapped, coaxed or ladled onto a dinner plate.

However you slice it, and whatever you think of the taste transaction, salsas and chutneys are a bargain. They repay minimal time and effort with big-time drama at dinner. Which is exactly why all those chic modern chefs started making them in the first place!

Salsa entered the American food vocabulary from Mexico. Even though the word means only "sauce," aficionados soon came to appreciate the finer points. A salsa cruda, for instance, is an uncooked salsa, while a salsa verde is predictably green — thanks to tomatillos, green chiles, cilantro and the like. Today, all restrictions on ingredients have been removed, though the notion of a light, chilled topping for grilled chicken or fish still tends to fixate around Latin, Caribbean or Asian flavors.

Chutneys have a quite different parentage, based on the East Indian word "chatni" and hailing from the subcontinent. As a cooked condiment, chutney can wander at your pleasure from hot to mild, sweet to sour, chunky to smooth. While whipping up chutneys, don't forget that the sweetest ones are great as a spread for bread (think: fruit preserves), and that many are terrific with cheese.

We offer you three salsa options and two chutneys to try out in your own home — leading you well on your way to adventure.


Black Bean & Papaya Salsa with Grilled Halibut

Serves 4
 

Prep Time: 15 minutes
Marinating Time: 20 minutes
Cooking Time: 20 minutes

Salsa:

1/2 cup diced onion
2 tablespoons olive oil
1/2 cup seeded and diced red bell pepper
1/4 cup diced celery
1/8 teaspoon ground cumin
1/8 teaspoon chili powder
1/8 teaspoon ground red pepper
Salt and black pepper to taste
1/2 cup cooked black beans
2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
1 cup diced papaya

Grilled Halibut:

2 teaspoons sesame oil
4 half-pound halibut fillets
1 tablespoon coarse kosher salt
Freshly ground pepper
1/4 cup grated orange zest

1. Lightly brown the onion in the olive oil over medium-high heat, then stir in the bell pepper, celery, cumin and spices. Sauté for 1 minute.

2. Transfer to a stainless steel bowl, and season with salt and pepper. Add the cooked black beans and all remaining ingredients, tossing to combine. Chill.

3. Pour the sesame oil over the halibut fillets and season with salt and pepper. Top with the grated zest and chill in refrigerator for 20 minutes.

4. Grill halibut for 6-7 minutes each side, or until it flakes with a fork. Top each fillet with 1/4 cup chilled salsa.

Note: If you are making this salsa ahead of time, add the papaya immediately before serving.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving: Calories: 392 Fat: 15g % fat calories: 34 Cholesterol: 73mg Carbohydrate: 13g Protein: 50g


Thai Citrus Shrimp Salsa

Makes 3 cups
 

Prep Time: 10 minutes

Juice of 2 limes
Juice of 2 lemons
1 tablespoon soy sauce
1/2 teaspoon sesame oil
1 tablespoon brown sugar
1 teaspoon creamy organic peanut butter
1 teaspoon Asian chile sauce
1/2 cup diced cooked shrimp
1 ripe tomato, peeled, seeded and diced
3 tablespoons diced onion
1 tablespoon diced red pickled ginger
1 tablespoon minced garlic
1/4 cup julienned fresh basil leaves
1 tablespoon finely minced lemongrass
1/2 cup chopped fresh cilantro
Salt and black pepper to taste

1. In a large bowl, combine the lime and lemon juices with the soy, sesame oil, brown sugar, peanut butter and chile sauce.

2. Add all remaining ingredients and toss quickly. Chill and serve with grilled chicken or fish, or as an appetizer with tortilla chips.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving: Calories: 33 Fat: 1g % fat calories: 23 Cholesterol: 14mg Carbohydrate: 4g Protein: 2g


Mango Chutney Caribe

Makes about 8 cups (16 servings)
 

Prep Time: 20 minutes
Cooking Time: 25-30 minutes

4 large unripe mangoes, peeled, seeded and sliced

1 teaspoon salt

1 Scotch Bonnet or jalapeño pepper

1 1/2 cups malt vinegar

3 garlic cloves

1/4 cup peeled and chopped fresh ginger

1/2 cup sugar

3/4 cup seedless raisins

1. Set the mango slices in a large bowl and sprinkle with the salt.

2. Trim the stalks from the peppers and remove the seeds, then let soak in a little of the vinegar for about 10 minutes.

3. Combine the peppers in a blender with the garlic and ginger and process until diced.

4. Pour the remaining vinegar into a saucepan; add the pepper mixture and sugar. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer uncovered for 15 minutes.

5. Add the mangoes and raisins, and simmer until thick and syrupy.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving: Calories: 84 Fat: 0.2g % fat calories: 2 Cholesterol: 0mg Carbohydrate:22g Protein: 0.6g


Pineapple-Orange Chutney

Makes about 2 cups (8 servings)
 

Prep Time: 10 minutes
Cooking Time: 35 minutes

1/2 cup raspberry vinegar
3/4 cup red wine vinegar
1 cup peeled, cored and diced fresh pineapple
1 cup diced orange segments
3 tablespoons honey
1 cup white wine
1 tablespoon diced red bell pepper
1 tablespoon diced green bell pepper
1 bay leaf
4 black peppercorns
2 tablespoons chopped fresh mint leaves

1. Reduce the vinegars over high heat in a large nonreactive saucepan until they are syrupy and measure about 1/4 cup.

2. Lower the heat to medium and stir in the diced pineapple and orange. Add the honey, wine and bell peppers.

3. Tie the bay leaf and peppercorns in cheesecloth and add to the pan, cooking the mixture until reduced by half. Remove the cheesecloth; strain mixture into a separate pan. Reserve the fruit.

4. Reduce the strained liquid in the pan until syrupy. Add the reserved fruit and cook over medium heat for 15 more minutes. Remove from heat.

5. Let the mixture cool and only then stir in the mint. Chill and serve.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving: Calories: 51 Fat: 0.1g % fat calories: 2 Cholesterol: 0mg Carbohydrate: 14g Protein: 0.3g


Grilled Grouper with Tomato & Corn Salsa

Makes 4 servings
 

Prep Time: 15 minutes
Marinating Time: 30 minutes
Cooking Time: 12 - 14 Minutes

Salsa:

1 cup diced tomatoes
1 cup cooked corn kernels
1 tablespoon chopped red onion
1 tablespoon chopped fresh cilantro
1/2 teaspoon sugar
1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
1/8 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
1-2 drops jalapeño pepper sauce
2 tablespoons fresh lime juice

Grilled Grouper:

1/4 cup freshly squeezed lime juice
1 teaspoon minced garlic
4 tablespoons chopped fresh cilantro
2 teaspoons olive oil
4 half-pound grouper fillets
1/8 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

1. In a medium bowl, mix all the salsa ingredients and allow flavors to blend at room temperature for at least 30 minutes.

2. Meanwhile, in a large shallow dish, combine the lime juice, garlic, cilantro and olive oil. Season the grouper with salt and pepper and allow the fillets to marinate in the mixture for 20 minutes in the refrigerator.

3. Grill the fillets over medium-high heat for 6-7 minutes per side, until the fish flakes easily.

4. Transfer the grilled grouper to 4 serving plates and top with the room-temperature tomato and corn salsa.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving: Calories: 272 Fat: 5g % fat calories: 15 Cholesterol: 83mg Carbohydrate: 14g Protein: 46g

John DeMers is associate food editor for Cooking Light magazine and is the author of 18 books.
 

Photographs by Laurie Smith

Delicious Living

Wor Tip (Potstickers)

Wor Tip (Potstickers)
January, 2000

Makes 30 to 35 dumplings< / These hearty, homey dumplings were from northern China where they functioned as main meals, together with noodles.

12 ounces minced chicken, pork or shrimp
6 ounces vegetables (bok choy or snow pea sprouts, along with a smaller amount of Chinese chives or coriander for additional taste)
1 package dumpling pastry
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon chicken bouillon
1/2 teaspoon sugar
pinch white pepper
a few drops of sesame oil
1/2 teaspoon cornstarch

1. Defrost dumpling pastry. Sauté or blanch vegetables until just wilted. Drain and coarsely chop. (The reason for pre-cooking the vegetables is that uncooked veggies will shrink inside the dumpling during cooking, and the result will be a loose-fitting, unattractive pouch).
2. Mix meat with seasonings. Add to chopped vegetables.
3. Put a generous tablespoon of filling onto a sheet of pastry. Make into traditional dumpling, or use a crescent press and make into crescents.
4. Steam dumplings in steamers on high for 8 minutes, after water has come to a boil.
5. For dipping, use either Chinese or balsamic vinegar with ginger shreds. Soya and vinegar is good as well.


Calories 45,Fat 0,Perfat 19,Cholesterol 9,Carbo 5,Protein 4,Fiber N/A,Sodium N/A
Delicious Living

Pineapple-Orange Chutney

Pineapple-Orange Chutney
January, 2000

Makes about 2 cups (8 servings Prep Time: 10 minutes
Cooking Time: 35 minutes


1/2 cup raspberry vinegar
3/4 cup red wine vinegar
1 cup peeled, cored and diced fresh pineapple
1 cup diced orange segments
3 tablespoons honey
1 cup white wine
1 tablespoon diced red bell pepper
1 tablespoon diced green bell pepper
1 bay leaf
4 black peppercorns
2 tablespoons chopped fresh mint leaves

1. Reduce the vinegars over high heat in a large nonreactive saucepan until they are syrupy and measure about 1/4 cup.
2. Lower the heat to medium and stir in the diced pineapple and orange. Add the honey, wine and bell peppers.
3. Tie the bay leaf and peppercorns in cheesecloth and add to the pan, cooking the mixture until reduced by half. Remove the cheesecloth; strain mixture into a separate pan. Reserve the fruit.
4. Reduce the strained liquid in the pan until syrupy. Add the reserved fruit and cook over medium heat for 15 more minutes. Remove from heat.
5. Let the mixture cool and only then stir in the mint. Chill and serve.

Calories 51,Fat 0,Perfat 2,Cholesterol 0,Carbo 14,Protein 0,Fiber N/A,Sodium N/A
Delicious Living

Calendar - January 2000

January Calendar
What you can do this month to live more naturally

on January 1, New Year's Day. Add one new healthy food such as tofu or flaxseed to your diet. Begin a yoga or aikido class. Take a tonic such as green-tea extract or astragalus to strengthen your immunity. Resolve to live — and enjoy— the fullest possible life.

and help save a life during January, National Volunteer Blood Donor Month. You're eligible to donate blood if you're at least 17 years old and weigh 110 pounds or more. For information about blood drives near you, call 800-GIVE-LIFE or your local American Red Cross.

on January 11, National Step in a Puddle and Splash Your Friend Day. Afterward, wash up with a natural cleanser and natural fiber washcloth. Or consult an ayurvedic physician for a panchakarma treatment — a detoxifying therapy designed to balance body, mind and spirit.

on January 14, National Dress Up Your Pet Day. If your Fido is a fox terrier, he might enjoy an organic cotton sweater and some toasty doggie boots. If your Fido is a feline or a filly, she might appreciate a natural wool blanket. If your Fido is a fish or a frog ... well, never mind.

Astrology isn't just a New Age trend, it's actually an ancient science that can offer insights for happiness and optimum health. To find a reputable astrologer, contact the American Federation of Astrologers at 480-838-1751 or www.astrologers.com.

on January 17, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Attend a march for peace. Get involved with school activities to educate children about racism. Consider how you can apply King's words, "I have a dream," to the planet, your community and your own life.

as the new year marches on. Take up Zen archery or pottery-making. Begin a study of African tribal medicine. Plan a trip to Tahiti. Visit a friend you haven't seen in ages. Take a vitamin and mineral supplement — if you don't already.

Illustrations by Mary Lynn Blasutta

Delicious Living

Slow Down!

Slow Down!


Feel queasy after noshing a Quarter Pounder, fries and Coke? You're not alone. Fast food may be as American as Monday night football, but that doesn't mean everybody loves it. In fact, an international distaste for fast food has created a backlash in the form of an organization called the Slow Food Movement.

Founded by Italian food-and-wine critic Carlo Petrini in 1986 (shortly after the first McDonald's opened in Italy), Slow Food aims to counter the global takeover by fast food, which, according to the Slow Food manifesto, "erodes our culinary heritage in the guise of efficiency." Instead, Slow Food relishes the use of fresh regional and seasonal vegetables, fruits, cheeses, meats and wines.

The premise seems to have struck a chord. In the past 14 years, membership has claimed 60,000 foodies from 35 countries, with 30-some chapters across the United States enjoying a recent surge of popularity. Each chapter works locally to protect small, specialty food producers and promote the enjoyment of quality edibles through food and wine events — anything from a casual huckleberry-picking trip in Oregon to a show in Chicago titled "A Feast for the Senses — Food, Wine, and Art." Sound like the club for you? Visit www.slowfood.com for a list of contacts in your area, or call 877-756-9366.

— Melissa Coleman

Delicious Living

Vegetarian, S'il Vous Plait

"Vegetarian, s'il vous plâit!"

I remember the time a vegetarian friend of mine went to Kazakhstan, ordered something she thought was vegetarian and ended up with the whole head of something that ate vegetarians instead. While she admits that the experience makes for an exotic story, undoubtedly she would have had a more positive dining experience had she taken along some guidance à la Speaking Vegetarian: The Globetrotter's Guide to Ordering Meatless in 197 Countries (Pilot Books) by Bryan Geon.

This guide offers concise information about vegetarian cuisine from around the world, plus how to say "I am a vegetarian" and related phrases in a multitude of languages from Armenian to French, and Hindi to Zulu.

Also includes handy tips for pronunciation and tone.

Not traveling anytime soon? Get a copy anyway, and brush up in advance. Meanwhile, impress your friends when you say Sikuli nyama — "I do not eat meat" in Swahili.

—Deborahann Smith


Saying "I don't eat meat" around the Globe
France Je ne mange pas de viande. zhuh nuh mahnzh pah duh vee-ohnd Greece Dhén tróyo kréas. thehnn TROH-yoh KREH-ahss Japan Watashi-wa niku o tabemasen. WAH-tah-shee wah NEE-koo oh tah-bay-mah-sehn Nepal Ma maasu khandina. muh MAH-soo kahn-DEE-nuh Spain No como carne. noh KOH-mo KARH-nay