New Hope Network is part of the Informa Markets Division of Informa PLC

This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 8860726.


Articles from 2002 In April

Delicious Living

May 1, 2002

Twinlab Corporation Reports First Quarter 2002 Results

HAUPPAUGE, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--April 30, 2002--Twinlab Corporation (NASDAQ:TWLB) today announced its results for the quarter ended March 31, 2002.

The Company reported net income of $3.7 million or $0.13 per share for the first quarter of 2002, versus a net loss of $(15.9) million or $(0.56) per share for the first quarter of last year. First quarter net sales were $48.2 million compared to $52.7 million in the comparable quarter last year. Net income for the first quarter of 2002 includes an income tax benefit of $6.9 million representing a Federal refund owed to the Company as a result of the recently enacted Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act of 2002 ($6.2 million received as of April 29, 2002). The net loss for the first quarter of 2001 included the loss on disposal of Changes International of $8.7 million.

The Company anticipates completing the sale and/or closure of the operations of Health Factors International, Inc. in the second quarter of 2002 for which a charge of approximately $1.0 million was recorded during the first quarter. The Company also announced today that it recently eliminated an additional 7% of its current workforce (excluding Health Factors) as part of its continuing efforts to improve profitability. The Company anticipates annualized cost reductions, in connection with these actions, will be in excess of $4.0 million, commencing in the third quarter of 2002.

Ross Blechman, Twinlab's Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer stated "Excluding the effect of the $1.0 million charge associated with Health Factors, the Company's loss from operations would have been $0.2 million, compared to a loss from operations of $9.9 million in the first quarter of 2001. We are beginning to realize the impact of our cost reductions and related initiatives, have generated positive cash flow from operations and reduced our outstanding debt. We recognize the need for additional measures and are committed to their implementation."

Twinlab Corporation, headquartered in Hauppauge, N.Y., is a leading manufacturer and marketer of high quality, science-based, nutritional supplements, including a complete line of vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals, herbs and sports nutrition products.

Except for historical information contained herein, this release contains, within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, forward-looking statements that are based on management's beliefs and assumptions, current expectations, estimates and projections. Many of the factors that will determine the Company's financial results are beyond the ability of the Company to control or predict. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and therefore actual results may differ materially. The Company disclaims any obligation to update any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. Important factors and risks that may affect future results include but are not limited to: (i) the impact of competitive products; (ii) changes in law and regulations; (iii) adequacy and availability of insurance coverage; (iv) limitations on future financing; (v) increases in the cost of borrowings and unavailability of debt or equity capital; (vi) the effect of adverse publicity regarding nutritional supplements; (vii) uncertainties relating to acquisitions; (viii) the inability of the Company to gain and/or hold market share; (ix) exposure to and expense of resolving and defending product liability claims and other litigation; (x) consumer acceptance of the Company's products; (xi) managing and maintaining growth; (xii) customer demands; (xiii) the inability to achieve cost savings and operational efficiencies; (xiv) dependence on individual products; (xv) dependence on individual customers, (xvi) market and industry conditions including pricing, demand for products, levels of trade inventories and raw materials availability, (xvii) the success of product development and new product introductions into the marketplace; (xviii) lack of available product liability insurance for ephedra-containing products; (xix) slow or negative growth in the nutritional supplement industry; (xx) the departure of key members of management; (xxi) the absence of clinical trials for many of the Company's products; (xxii) the ability of the Company to efficiently manufacture its products; as well as other risks and uncertainties that are described from time to time in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, copies of which are available upon request from the Company's investor relations department.

Additional Twinlab information is available on the World Wide Web at:

More Awards For Healthy TV Series

After just recently being recognized with a 2002 Aegis Award, healthy television series "Alive & Well with Michelle Harris" has been awarded further industry recognition with a 2002 Videographer Award. The show and it's host received an Award Of Distinction in the categories of production, creativity and on-camera talent. This puts Alive & Well and host Michelle Harris in pretty good company. Past recipients have included The Rosie O'Donnell Show, 20/20 and Good Morning America, among others. Host Michelle Harris commented "It's been very rewarding to receive this kind of recognition in our first year broadcasting nationally. Everyone here has worked very hard to prove that a national television series about natural foods and health products can be entertaining, as well as touching people's lives." The show airs nationwide on GoodLife TV Network. For a broadcast schedule, visit the show's website at www.AliveandWell.TV.

Relora(tm) New Natural Stress-Induced Appetite Control Ingredient To Be Distributed by Stauber

Irvine, CA, May 1st, 2002 - Next Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced today that Stauber Performance Ingredients, Inc., Fullerton, California, has been appointed the U.S. marketing representative for its new and exciting Relora(tm), a patent-pending anti-anxiety and stress relief ingredient proven to help stressed individuals relax and regulate the hormones associated with stress-related weight gain.

"We are very excited about this opportunity to introduce Relora TM, a safe and effective ingredient that has not only has been proven to relieve stress, but has also shown to significantly decrease Cortisol and increase DHEA in stressed individuals," says Dan Stauber, CEO of Stauber. "In light of some of the concerns now associated with other anti-anxiety formulations, coupled with its enormous potential in weight loss programs, we expect Relora(tm) applications to grow and be successful."

Relora(tm) is a proprietary blend of patent-pending plant extracts from Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense, two major botanicals used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 1500 years. Next Pharmaceuticals spent over three years developing this timely ingredient and has extensive pharmacology data, animal studies, and human trials to back its safety and efficacy. Results of Next's first human trial showed that 8 out of 10 subjects felt relaxed with Relora(tm). In a more recent study it was shown to decrease Cortisol levels by 28% in stressed individuals and increase DHEA by 300%.

"Not only is Relora(tm) an excellent way to alleviate stress, and the health risks associated with stress, but it also appears to modulate the hormones that lead to stress-induced eating and subsequent weight gain," says Walter G. Chambliss, Ph.D., Professor of Pharmaceutics, and Associate Director in the National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi. Additional studies are planned for Relora.2 this year along with a national public relations program to build consumer and health professional awareness.

Stauber Performance Ingredients, Inc. is a leading distributor of ingredients to dietary supplement and food manufacturers. Next Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a research and development company focused on new, natural, patented ingredients for the dietary supplement and functional food industries.

The Relora (TM) site at has information about the product and where to find it. You can also call, Swanson Health Products at 800-437-4148.

For more information please call Stauber Performance Ingredients at 1-800-649-7246.

Childhood Nutritional Deficiencies Are a Global 'Hidden Disability,' Says Wyeth Nutrition

PHILADELPHIA, April 30 /PRNewswire/ -- Global vitamin and mineral deficiencies in infants and young children's diets are still a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The Academy of Pediatric Nutrition, a global group of nutritional experts gathered at the 3rd annual meeting in London, to discuss the impact these deficiencies have on child development and growth. Their remit is to discuss the latest thinking in infant nutrition and disseminate their findings to healthcare professionals and the public. At this meeting they were particularly focusing on iron, selenium and zinc deficiencies.

They presented data showing the prevalence of some mineral deficiencies; iron deficiency affects 17% of children in developed countries, rising to a staggering 42% in developing nations(1). In the Philippines it has even been recorded as high as 56.6% in infants between 6 months to a year of age(2). In addition over 70% of infants in South Africa have a zinc intake less than two thirds of the recommended daily allowance(3).

Dr Neville Belton, Honorary Fellow of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh said: "There are certain windows of opportunity for a child's optimum growth and mental development that should not be missed. From birth to three years of age it is crucial that children receive the correct nutrients."

A study reviewed at this meeting showed that infants who were iron deficient at 6 months of age showed lower scholastic achievement and poorer fine motor control and behavior when followed up at five and half years of age, than those who did not develop iron deficient anemia as infants(4).

Dr Belton continued "Once deficiency occurs it is probably too late to achieve optimal development. Ideally we need to prevent iron and other deficiencies when the brain is developing. There is a perception that giving iron later in the diet will compensate for any lack in early childhood. This may not be correct, in some cases the effects may be irreversible."

Dr Perla Santos-Ocampo, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines, said: "Iron deficiency may be a serious public health problem that can lead to irreversible developmental delay, impaired behavior, lower attention span and problem solving abilities, and growth retardation. In some areas of the world its prevalence remains the same today as it did ten years ago. It is a hidden disability."

Dr El-Khayat, Professor of Paediatrics, Ain-Shams University, Cairo added "Iron deficiency is obviously important, however selenium and zinc deficiencies are also common, causing impaired immune and neurological function; this can have a serious, long-term impact on children's development."

Dr Belton concluded: "Deficiencies are not diseases and can be prevented. In the USA and Taiwan they have dramatically reduced iron deficiency anemia in formula fed babies by fortifying infant, follow and toddler formulas. There is a strong argument for older infants and young children to be encouraged to eat iron-fortified foods and to continue with iron supplemented formulas to ensure that all their nutritional needs are fully covered."

As a result of this meeting the Academy is developing a scientific paper to use as a platform to help disseminate to healthcare professionals and educate the public.


      1. ACC/SCN 2000. Fourth Report of the World Nutrition.


      2. 5th National Nutrition Survey DOST-FNRI 1998.


      3. TBC


      4. Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Hagen J et al. Poorer Behavioural and Developmental Outcomes More than 10- Years After Treatment for Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Pediatrics;2000: 105(4):E51 SOURCE Wyeth Nutrition

Nature's Sunshine Declares Quarterly Cash Dividend

PROVO, Utah--(BUSINESS WIRE)--April 30, 2002--Nature's Sunshine Products, Inc. (Nasdaq:NATR), a leading manufacturer and marketer of encapsulated herbs and vitamins, today declared a 3 1/3 cents per common share quarterly cash dividend payable May 21, 2002, to shareholders of record on May 14, 2002.

The Company has declared consecutive quarterly cash dividends since 1988 pursuant to its cash dividend policy. There are approximately 16,205,000 shares outstanding with 20 million shares authorized.

Nature's Sunshine Products manufactures and markets through direct sales encapsulated and tableted herbal products, high quality natural vitamins and other complementary products. In addition to the U.S., the Company has operations in South Korea, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Canada, Colombia, the United Kingdom and Ireland, Peru, Chile, Central America, Ecuador and Israel. The Company also has exclusive distribution agreements with selected companies in Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Norway and the Russian Federation.

For more information, contact us at our website at


Carotech Inc. Continues with 2nd Phase of Marketing Campaign for Tocomin® Natural Torcotrienol Complex

Edison, New Jersey. April 30th 2002 – Expanding its marketing reach to American consumers, Carotech Inc., the world’s first and leader in producing natural tocotrienol complex, is continuing its 2nd phase of a nation-wide promotional and marketing campaign in a bid to capitalize on the growing consumer and scientific interest in the product.

With the recent controversy and negative human studies on the regular tocopherol Vitamin E, Carotech believes that the best form of vitamin E to take as supplement, is one that contains all the 8 isomers of Vitamin E – d-mixed tocopherols and d-mixed tocotrienols, as produce by nature. “This is the most complete and most balanced form of Vitamin E supplement and gives one the optimal and maximum benefits,” said WH Leong, Carotech’s Vice President.

In addition, with several clinical investigations underway or completed, Tocomin® has been shown to be a highly potent neuro-protective form of vitamin E. The tocotrienols crosses the blood-brain barrier and protects neurons from a variety of toxins better than the tocopherol (the regular vitamin E). Other human clinical studies have also proven the ability of tocotrienols to reverse arterial blockage in Carotid Stenosis patients and reduce total serum cholesterol.

“We decided to engage Media Relations, Inc. Health Division because of its strong reputation in the natural health products industry,” said WH Leong, Carotech’s Vice President. “Tocomin® Natural Tocotrienol Complex is well established in the US where it is incorporated into more than 50 nutritional supplements marketed to promote a range of health benefits from maintaining cardiovascular and brain health to women’s nutrition.”

Media Relations, a leading public relation firm will assist in developing consumer-brand awareness of Carotech’s Tocomin® Natural Full Spectrum Tocotrienol Complex through an aggressive consumer broadcast and print publicity campaign.

For more information on tocotrienol, visit

Cancer Scientists Find Prescription Drugs In Herbal Supplement

by Wyn Snow, Managing Editor,

Some months ago, reported on a promising herbal remedy for prostate cancer. PC SPES was achieving highly positive results in clinical studies (see story: Herbs That Fight Prostate Cancer). Now, however, cancer researchers report finding three synthetic compounds in the mix.

Robert Nagourney, MD, Director of Rational Therapeutics in Long Beach CA, told cancer scientists at the 93rd annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research in San Francisco that he and his colleagues found three prescription drugs in samples of PC SPES that they analyzed:

  • diethylstilbestrol, a hormone-like compound more familiarly known as DES
  • warfarin, a blood thinner, also known as Coumadin®
  • indomethacin, a pain killer

Product success launches detective story of research

According to Nagourney, he and his colleagues initially "were delighted that an herbal product was effective against cancer and became intrigued with finding out chemically what was inducing these changes. We wanted to know what made this stuff so effective."

Knowing how PC SPES worked would be useful not only for prostate cancer but might supply knowledge for fighting other kinds of cancer as well, so Nagourney and Dr. Milos Sovak of the Biophysica Foundation in La Jolla CA, in collaboration with associates at the Palacky University in Olomouc, Czech Republic, decided to investigate.

PC SPES exhibits estrogenic effects, so Nagourney and Sovak began looking for an estrogenic compound among the herbal ingredients, "and that's where we ran into trouble," says Nagourney. "We weren't managing to explain the types of results we were seeing."

The formula for PC SPES combines saw palmetto with seven herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, including: licorice, reishi, Baikal skullcap, rabdosia, Dyers woad, mum, and Panax ginseng. Marian Hajduc of Palacky University took extracts of these herbs and tested them for bioactivity by mixing them in test tubes with three different strains of prostate cancer cells, both singly and in combinations. None of Hajduc's extracts or mixtures slowed growth of the cancer cells — but PC SPES does.

Sophie Chen, PhD, of BotanicLab, Inc. (the manufacturer of PC SPES, located in Brea CA), has gone on record explaining that PC SPES consists of highly concentrated fractions derived from the plants noted above. Thus, the failure of Hajduc's mixtures to inhibit cancer cell growth is not evidence that PC SPES contains other active components. A different extraction process or more highly concentrated mixture might slow the cancer cell growth.

Research takes a new direction

However, Nagourney and Sovak wanted to know "What's different between our mixture of these herbs and the manufacturer's mixture of herbs?" To find out, they decided to analyze the various herbs and the PC SPES mixture itself in order to identify exactly what was in each of them.

The researchers purchased samples of PC SPES from the manufacturer and took them to the Biophysica Foundation where Dr. Allen Seligson subjected them to analysis using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) methodology.

"HPLC tracings look like a forest," Seligson told "We compared the tracings of PC SPES with tracings of the individual herbs and mixtures of herbs. Among the several hundred peaks, we found three discrepancies between the tracings of PC SPES and the herbs." The researchers identified these three discrepancies as consisting of DES, warfarin, and indomethacin.

Synthetic drugs or natural analogues?

In 2001, the New England Journal of Medicine published a letter from Weinrobe and Montgomery that said they found warfarin (also known as Coumadin®) in the blood of a patient who was using PC SPES (NEJM, vol 345, pages 1213-1214). BotanicLab replied that the product might contain a natural coumarin. Indeed, coumarin compounds do appear in many plants — including strawberries, apricots, cherries, cinnamon, lavender, woodruff, and clover, so this could be a plausible explanation.

However, Nagourney states there are chemical differences between synthetic and natural coumarins. What they found was "consistent with synthetic warfarin rather than plant-based." Warfarin is a prescription blood-thinner.

Similarly, the researchers found 150 micrograms of DES per gram in their samples of PC SPES. DES is also a synthetic compound. According to Nagourney, "DES interacts with estrogenic receptors in a similar way to natural estrogens, and was used as a treatment for prostate cancer decades ago. We moved to other drugs because DES tends to cause blood clotting."

BotanicLab rejoinder

BotanicLab did not return phone calls from However, their website states unequivocally: "DES was never an ingredient formulated in the composition of PC SPES."

BotanicLab also states on its website: "Studies performed by Peter Nelson and Michael Bonham compared the effects of PC SPES and DES on several genes involved in the growth of prostate carcinoma, and found that the compounds exhibited distinctly different activities." The website quotes Dr. Nelson as saying, "The cellular effects of PC SPES and DES are quite distinct, and I believe, based on our findings, that PC SPES kills cancer cells through very different mechanisms than those utilized by DES."

On February 8, BotanicLab issued a voluntary recall of PC SPES, after the California Department of Health announced it had found warfarin in the product. BotanicLab said its independent lab results found that the material "may instead be a phytocoumarin (a compound naturally synthesized in various green plants) that may mimic warfarin in laboratory testing."

Does processing cause chemical changes to herbs?

It can. According to Staci Eisner, Technical Director at ExtractsPlus in Vista CA, the process of transforming a plant into an extract or concentrate can create new chemical compounds and cause others to degrade. It might break a molecule in two, or alter a molecule in other specific and generally predictable ways.

So processing can change an HPLC tracing, but Eisner says, "These changes should make sense. Generally speaking, the process of extracting and concentrating herbal compounds from a plant usually would not generate a chemical compound that is the same as a patented pharmaceutical drug."

Pharmaceutical drugs are deliberately made of unique molecules that do not occur in nature or through commonly used processing methods. To be eligible for a patent, a substance has to be either man-made (synthetic) or a new use of a natural substance. Also, manufacturers want to make it difficult for competitors to reproduce their results. All three of the drugs in question began their lives as patented pharmaceuticals, although the patents have now run out and the drugs can be manufactured and sold by others.

Herbalist perspective

Roy Upton, a leading herbalist and Executive Director of the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, is not surprised by Nagourney's report. He states, "Herbalists have suspected adulteration of PC SPES for some time. It was working too well and causing side effects that are not typical of the herbs in the formula." However, Upton cautions that "the jury is still slightly out" on whether PC SPES does actually contain these substances — and if it does, why they are there.

Upton says PC SPES is not based on any formulation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which he practices. Instead, "it looks like a modern mixture of herbs shown to have anticancer properties, some of which happen to be Chinese herbs."

If warfarin were added to the mix, the purpose from a Western point of view would be to reduce the risk of blood clots from DES. From the perspective of Chinese medicine, however, warfarin might be added to enhance the herbs. Upton says, "In Chinese medicine, one primary means of dissolving tumors is to use substances that dispel blood coagulation and break up blood stasis. Tumors are viewed as masses of tissue that are enervated with blood, so adding warfarin to the mix could be seen as a legitimate method [from the TCM point of view] for potentiating the blood-breaking effects of these herbs."

Upton also says, "Conceptually, there's nothing wrong with combining drugs and herbs, but in the US, supplement ingredients must be disclosed on the label. If a product contains drugs, it cannot be sold as a dietary supplement."

The cloud and the silver lining

The evidence from Nagourney and Sovak's research has not yet received the intense scrutiny that follows publication of scientific work, but soon will. Further investigation is also highly likely.

Mark Blumenthal, Executive Director of the American Botanical Council (ABC) in Austin TX and Editor/Publisher of HerbalGram, cautions that testing of botanical substances is fraught with technical difficulties. His experience in testing more than 500 ginseng products for ABC taught him how challenging it can be to develop reliable and rigorous test methods so that two independent laboratories get the same results from the same samples.

However, if PC SPES does contain these pharmaceutical drugs, its future is cloudy. If PC SPES contains drugs, it cannot be sold as an herbal supplement. Because of the recall, PC SPES is currently not available to prostate cancer patients. Ironically, however, this cloud may have a silver lining.

If PC SPES gets its results from DES plus warfarin, then any physician can prescribe these two pharmaceutical medications, as Dr. Nagourney has been doing for some of his prostate cancer patients for approximately two years now. Also, warfarin is a powerful drug. Taking too much can cause uncontrolled bleeding, a very serious and life-threatening condition. Therefore, people who use warfarin, which is often prescribed under the brand name of Coumadin®, need to have their dosages and blood-clotting times closely monitored.

Also, if PC SPES does contain these drugs, the current regulatory framework for supplements worked. Richard Ko, at the California Department of Health, was the first to find warfarin in PC SPES, triggering a voluntary recall at the national level by BotanicLab.

The larger picture

PC SPES raises issues of testing and globalization of commerce that all revolve around quality. Several fledgling programs have begun to test and certify dietary supplement products and to inspect and certify the manufacturing facilities that produce them. The organizations developing these programs include:

  • National Nutritional Foods Association
  • NSF International
  • US Pharmacopeia

Once these programs have become widely adopted throughout industry and the marketplace, it will be difficult if not impossible for a manufacturer to sell a product containing pharmaceutical drugs under a dietary supplement label.

Indeed, any manufacturer who passes good-manufacturing-practice (GMP) inspections today must have a reliable process for verifying the identity of raw ingredients from anywhere in the globe. To pass these inspections, manufacturers must also establish and follow procedures that ensure ingredients do not become contaminated at any stage of the manufacturing process.

In conclusion

If PC SPES contains prescription pharmaceuticals, there are only two ways this could happen: accidental contamination or deliberate adulteration. If PC SPES was deliberately adulterated at one or more stages in the supply, manufacturing or distribution process, then the law was knowingly broken — which is a very different issue from whether a new supplement is both safe and effective.

An old folk injunction advises people to be careful what they wish for. Indeed, if PC SPES was adulterated, this is a case where the wished-for success attracted a level of scientific scrutiny that proved its undoing.


Mark Blumenthal; Executive Director of the American Botanical Council, Austin TX; Editor/Publisher of HerbalGram. Personal communication, 18 April 2002.

BotanicLab, Inc., Brea CA. Information from website, including press release: "BotanicLab pursues investigation of `compound' found in PC SPES."

Staci Eisner; Technical Director at ExtractsPlus, Inc., Vista CA. Personal communication, 19 April 2002.

Robert A. Nagourney, MD; Medical and Laboratory Director of Rational Therapeutics Testing Lab; also affiliated with Memorial Medical Center and UCI Medical Center in Orange CA. Personal communication, 18 April 2002.

Allen Seligson, PhD; chemist and General Manager, Biophysica Foundation, La Jolla CA. Personal communication, 18 April 2002.

Roy Upton; herbalist, Executive Director of American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Santa Cruz CA. Personal communication, 19 April 2002.

Hyperweb awarded contract to develop Forest Glen Baseball Association website.

Hyperweb has been contracted to develop a comprehensive website for the Forest Glen Baseball Association.

The site will include extensive content and utilize content management and microsites to deliver information to parents and players alike.

For further information please contact :
Carl Messenger-Lehmann, President
Hyperweb Communications
(416) 503-2272
[email protected]

Polyphenolics Hires New Research Chemist

Madera, CA – March, 2001 – Polyphenolics announces the appointment of Dr. Bala Sreenivasan as Research Chemist. He was most recently a Research Associate at Michigan State University. Dr. Sreenivasan holds a doctorate degree in organic chemistry, and brings a decade of international research and development experience to the technical staff.

In his new position, Dr. Sreenivasan will focus his research efforts on understanding the biological mechanisms and role of grape phytochemicals on cardiovascular health, as well as on developing related high-performance natural extracts with targeted health benefits.

While at Michigan State University, he worked on natural products research, synthesis of bioactive compounds and large-scale asymmetric catalyst synthesis. He also served as an Organic Synthesis Specialist in the School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University being awarded the Israel National Research Council Fellowship. His experience also includes a research associate position in the Department of Organic Chemistry and Molecular Biotechnology Unit, Indian Institute of Science. Dr. Sreenivasan holds U.S. patents for his inventions in natural products research.

Polyphenolics is a major supplier of grape seed and grape skin extracts to the dietary supplement, nutritional, and beverage industries. For more information, call (219) 243-9835 or visit