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Articles from 2000 In August

Vitamin E: Making The Grade?

Vitamin E: Making the Grade?
Scattered Vitamins
That daily vitamin E you pop may not pass the heart-healthy test after all, suggest Canadian scientists, who gave the vitamin an "F" grade in warding off heart attack, stroke or related death. Researchers studied nearly 10,000 men and women over age 55 with existing cardiovascular risk factors. After subjects took either 400 IU of natural-source vitamin E or placebo for 4.5 years, both groups remained equally at risk (New England Journal of Medicine, 2000, vol. 342).

Of course, admit the experts, vitamin E wasn't harmful per se, and its possible benefits may kick in when combined with other antioxidants, such as selenium. Moreover, the study only looked at people with existing heart disease, so vitamin E's merit may lie in prevention rather than reversal. Because numerous other studies contradict these findings, more trials are planned.

— Angela Pirisi

Photography by: Jeff Padrick

Tocotrienol As Possible Anti-Aging Compound

Buy this Book More Executive Book Reviews
September 1st , 2000

A study from the School of Medicine, Tokai University, Japan found that the administration of palm tocotrienol complex to animals results in a reduction of oxidative stress risks. The study further indicated that palm tocotrienols complex may be a possible natural compound for anti-aging and oxidative stress prevention.

The study which was published in the June 2000 issue of Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences provided evidence on the role of oxygen free radicals in the aging process and how the pre-administration and post-administration of palm tocotrienol complex increased the mean life-span and reduced oxidative stress of a free-living nematode.

Oxidative damage due to free radicals or reactive oxygen species has been implicated in the process of aging, hence the free radical theory of aging. Much of our understanding of the process and biology of aging come from organisms such as mice and rats but significant progress has been made in the past decade with a simple 1mm long worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans, is about as primitive an organism that exists which nonetheless share many of the essential biological characteristics that are central problems of human biology. This fascinating little worm is the only multi-cellular organism whose entire collection of genes has literally been read, making it probably the most completely understood organism. Thus, C. elegans provides scientists and researchers with the ideal model in learning crucial lessons about many diseases such as aging, cancer, aging, muscular dystrophies, etc.

UVB irradiation was used to induce acute oxidative stress in the C. elegans. UVB was used because it generates hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in fibroblasts and skin which subsequently results in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and lipophilic antioxidant depletion.

It was observed that administration of palm tocotrienol complex prevented protein oxidation and consequently extended the life span of C. elegans. Palm tocotrienol complex administration recovered the mean life span of the UVB irradiated group compared to the non-irradiated group, whereas alpha-tocopherol administration did not give a significant recovery. This indicates that palm tocotrienol complex has a greater protective function against acute oxidative stress induced by UVB irradiation compared to alpha-tocopherol, the more commonly known Vitamin E.

Vitamin E is major chain-breaking antioxidant that is crucial in preventing the propagation of free radical damage to the membranes. Tocotrienols are also natural membrane antioxidant as alpha-tocopherol in many organelles. In membrane, tocotrienol has been shown to be 40-60 times higher in antioxidant activity compared to tocopherol. Results from this study indicate the protective property of palm tocotrienol complex against acute oxidative damage to the membrane. Administration of palm tocotrienol complex may provide an efficient and natural way in oxidative-stress prevention treatment and possible natural agent for anti-aging.

In summary, this new enlightening study carried out on the most completely understood organism, hold promise in indicating that naturally occurring palm tocotrienols complex may be an effective natural compound in preventing skin aging and oxidative-stress related conditions. Even though the study was carried out on a worm, it nevertheless showed promising results in the protection of membranes.

HERE'S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: The study is a small step forward in basic science on study of skin aging and prevention of skin aging. An important point in this study is tocotrienol was shown to be a better form of vitamin E in preventing skin aging and oxidative stress related conditions. The small study suggests that taking moderate levels of tocotrienols may be beneficial.

Delicious Living

September 1, 2000

Razzle, Dazzle Smile!

Razzle, Dazzle Smile!
by Robin R. Rathbun

If a smile be your umbrella, don't just save it for a rainy day. Let it shine its everyday best with today's natural brighteners.

Woman SmilingYou can create a stunning, razzle-dazzle smile without bonding, capping or veneering your teeth. The two most common solutions are bleaching and abrasives — neither natural nor healthy for your teeth and gums. But there are some deliciously healthy natural products on the market that will give you something to smile about.

Each of us has our own "dental karma," according to Bernard Schechter, D.D.S., president of the Dental Herb Company in North Hampton, Mass. This means that our teeth are genetically predisposed to certain shades of the spectrum, from yellow to gray.

To make any shade of teeth whiter and brighter, scrub the exterior surface with toothpaste or tooth powder. Many manufacturers offer whitening toothpastes, although Schechter insists that there's no such thing. "I don't know any natural products that actually whiten teeth," Schechter says. "Toothpastes are abrasive to a more or lesser degree, which cleans the surface of the teeth. So, in effect, you could have sparkling gray or yellow teeth."

Shadings of yellow or gray occur because teeth develop intrinsic and extrinsic stains that darken over time. Tooth enamel, a calcareous substance that thinly caps a tooth, and dentin, a calcareous material that's harder than the bone that composes the principal mass of a tooth, have a crystalline structure — much like microscopic straws — through which bodily fluids flow. Some stains, like mottling from overfluoridating or from iron supplements, are rooted deep in the tooth. Other stains occur from exposure to wine, coffee, tea or tobacco.

"If stains have penetrated the enamel, then you can't expect to whiten them without a chemical or electrical brightening agent — a peroxide-like solution," says Michael Olmstead, D.D.S., consultant to the biocompatible dental field in Monterey, Calif. "But, if stains are the result of plaque or tartar build-up, friction and a mild abrasive can brighten teeth."

The good news is that natural abrasives, like hydrated silica and calcium carbonate (limestone chalk) are found in many toothpastes touted for their whitening power. The bad news is they may contribute to abrasion of tooth enamel. Reid Winick, D.D.S., a holistic dentist who specializes in deep scaling, a nonsurgical periodontal procedure, recommends a toothpaste with antioxidant properties that will help whiten teeth naturally. His product of choice includes calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and magnesium carbonate.

The least abrasive tooth-whitening product on the market uses effervescent action to break through stained tartar. When combined with one's saliva, this toothpowder forms carbonic acid, creating a mild foaming action. Due to the effervescent action, the calcium carbonate — the abrasive in the powder — becomes completely soluble. Although it's not as effective as pastes, enough abrasivity remains to gently clean and whiten teeth.

Olmstead's concerns about chemicals led him to try an ionic toothbrush with a small amount of whitening toothpaste to naturally bleach teeth over 30­45 days. The premise behind this technology, which has been marketed in Japan and Europe for several years, is that plaque and stains adhere to teeth via an electrostatic bond. The ionic toothbrush literally breaks that bond by temporarily reversing the polarity of tooth surfaces from negative to positive, repelling plaque toward the toothbrush head.

Sound hard to believe? A clinical study at the Marquette University School of Dentistry found the manual ionic toothbrush effective in reducing plaque on the test subjects' teeth over a six-month period of unsupervised brushing. During that time, the test group reduced plaque buildup by 36.17 percent as compared to the control group's reduction of 18.56 percent.

"Using an ionic toothbrush in conjunction with a whitening toothpaste supercharges the whole procedure without using trays or chemicals," says Olmstead. "From my experience, teeth definitely get whiter."

Brush Up On The Right Brush
As with the ionic toothbrush, make sure the bristles of any toothbrush are soft. Advances in technology are changing the shape of handles, modifying the head design and altering the shape and number of bristles mounted on the brush. Natural bristles, like boar hair, can be too firm and retain more bacteria than virgin nylon bristles. And since most toothbrushes need to be replaced every three to four months, many companies are making certain their products are fully recyclable.

Our teeth, however, are not recyclable. That's why good oral care is a must. Many dentists insist that this process begins with optimal nutrition. Winick suggests the following daily protocol for healthy teeth and gums and winter-fresh breath:

·Floss between teeth;
·Brush with a soft-bristled toothbrush, using an antimicrobial toothpaste;
·Scrape or brush the tongue; and
·Rinse with an antibacterial mouthwash.

Robin R. Rathbun is a freelance writer based in Boulder, Colo.

Photography by: Tony Anderson

Chefs Support GE Labeling

Chefs support GE labeling

StrawberriesIn May 2000, past winners of the James Beard Foundation's Chef of the Year Award helped launch the "Keep Nature Natural" campaign, aimed at demanding mandatory FDA labeling and environmental testing of genetically engineered foods.

Chefs Rick Bayless, Larry Forgione, Charlie Trotter and Alice Waters added their voices to the campaign because of concerns that genetic engineering can lower food quality. "It is important that citizens let the government know how they feel about genetically engineered food," says Trotter. "I have concerns that this untested technology diminishes the purity and taste of food."

"I don't want to buy and serve genetically engineered foods, yet because there is no labeling for these products, that is challenging to do," says Bayless. "The requests for mandatory labeling and safety testing are reasonable steps for the FDA to take."

For more information, contact Citizens for Health at 800-357-2211 or visit

— Mike Liguori

Photography by: Laurie Smith


Delicious Living

Homeopathic remedies





Common bruises. Injuries from blow or fall. Shock. Worse if touched.


Injuries of bones, shins, soft tissue. Sprains. Worsens when lying down or during cold, wet weather.

Common Cold


Sudden onset, often after exposure to cold weather or to hot, dry wind. Indicated for first 24 hours of illness. High fever, anxiety, sensitive to light. Thirsty with burning throat.

Allium cepa

Clear, burning nasal discharge. Eyes may be red, tearing and burning. Possible dry cough and sneezing. Worse in warm room or indoors. Better in open air.


Thick, creamy-yellow nasal discharge. Nose runs in open air, stuffs up indoors and at night. Dry mouth with lack of thirst. Lips chapped. Craves open air.



The most common remedy. Frequent, strong urge to urinate and burning during urination. Restless with severe pain in urethra and bladder.


Symptoms are worse at night. Use when burning pain is worse when not urinating. Burning may also be severe just before urination, upon beginning to urinate, or when the last drops are passed.

Precautions: Seek medical care if you have complicating health issues (diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease) or are experiencing severe symptoms (bleeding, vomiting, back pain).



Copious, watery discharge, spasmodic sneezing. Itching in the nose and red, runny eyes. Improved by open air. Possible sensation like a lump in throat and constant urge to swallow.


Upper-respiratory allergies are accompanied by intense itching in the back of the roof of the mouth or itching behind the nose. Continuous, burning watery flow from the nose.

Precautions: See a professional homeopath for a constitutional remedy if your hayfever is chronic.



Sudden, violent pain. Restless and fearful. Sensation as if band around head. Fullness in forehead.


Intense, throbbing pain. Red eyes, pupils dilated. Face flushed and head hot. Feels worse when lying down. May have high fever.

Precautions: Seek medical care immediately for severe headache accompanied by stiff neck or high fever, or if headache is due to head injury.



Stomach feels heavy after eating, sensitive to touch. Thirsty for long drinks of cold water, but may vomit from warm drinks. Worse from movement.


Indigestion follows a fit of anger and irritability. Stomach is distended with gas and cramping. Flushed cheeks and aversion to warm drinks.



Classic flu symptoms. Feels tired, weak, heavy and sick. Eyelids are heavy and droopy, face appears dull. Chills, fever, yet little thirst.


Irritable. Feels worse with motion. Better when lying still. Headache. Feels better in cool air. May have intense thirst for cold drinks and dry, hacking cough. Extremely restless. Muscles stiff and achy. May be anxious, irritable or depressed. Profuse sweating. Muscle soreness worse when still for long periods, better when moving about. Worse in cold, wet weather. Better in warmth and with applied heat.

Precautions: Get immediate medical attention for any fever in a child under four months of age; for fever greater than 102° in children less than two years of age; and for a fever of 106° or higher in any age group. Also for fever accompanied by a rash.

Rhus tax

Extremely restless. Muscles stiff and achy. May be ansious, irritable or depressed. Profuse sweating. Muscle soreness worse when still for long periods, better when moving about. Worse in cold, wet weather. Better in warmth and with applied heat.

Precautions: Get immediate medical attention for any fever in a child under four months of age; for fever greater than 102º in children less than two years of age; and for a fever of 106º or higher in any age group. Also for fever accompanied by a rash.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)


Marked irritability and anger. Acute menstrual cramps that may feel like labor pains. Sensation of weight and bearing down in pelvis. Pain relieved by warmth.


Sensitive, moody, weepy or depressed. Cramps, dizziness, fainting, nausea, diarrhea, back pain and headaches possible. No thirst, feels worse in heat.


Uterine and ovarian pain. Back pain, dizziness, headaches, diarrhea. Symptoms begin or worsen during sleep; relieved when menstrual flow begins.

Sources: Everybody's Guide to Homeopathic Medicines (Jeremy P.Tarcher/Perigee) by Dana Ullman, M.P.H. and Stephen Cummings, M.D.; Homeopathic Medicine at Home (Jeremy P.Tarcher Inc.) by Maesimund B. Panos, M.D., and Jane Heimlich.

Delicious Living

Spices & Seasonings




Allspice Discovered by Spanish explorers in Jamaica in the early 16th century, allspice (also known as Jamaican pepper) is the dried, unripe berry of the evergreen pimento tree.

Dark brown, pea-sized berries taste like a mix of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves. Available whole or ground.

Whole seeds for soups and stews, gravy and pickling; ground for grilled fish and poultry, meats (beef, ham, lamb) and vegetables (carrots, peas, spinach, beets).

Anise Dating back as far as 1500 B.C., anise, or aniseed, is native to the Mediterranean region, specifically Greece, Turkey and Egypt.

Seeds, from a plant related to the parsley family, have a sweet, licorice taste.

Aniseed is used to flavor drinks (pastis, ouzo, anisette), curries, sweet breads and fruit. It may also be chewed to aid in digestion.

Caraway Seed Indigenous specifically to Western Asia and the Mediterranean, caraway seed is a key ingredient in Austrian, Hungarian and German cuisine.

From an herb in the parsley family, these aromatic seeds have a nutty taste, with a hint of anise.

Commonly used to flavor breads (rye), cheese spreads and vegetables (cabbage, potatoes, carrots, onions).

Cardamom A member of the ginger family, cardamom is an ancient spice, native to India. It is now used in almost every culture in the world.

Black, white or green pods with an outer shell and tiny seeds with a warm, pungent flavor. Available whole or ground.

Frequently used to flavor desserts (baked apples, spice cakes), vegetables (carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes) and in Asian spice mixtures.

Cayenne Pepper Native to French Guyana. Also called red pepper.

Ground from the dried seeds of cayenne chile peppers, cayenne pepper is pungent and hot. The heat comes from capsaicin, a compound found in the seeds and membranes of chile peppers.

In addition to adding heat, cayenne will boost the flavor of foods such as barbecue sauce or chili, savory egg and cheese dishes and shellfish.

Celery Seed Most celery seed comes from India.

The seed of wild celery, known as lovage, celery seed has a strong celery fragrance and flavor, and can be somewhat bitter.

In moderation, celery seed is an excellent flavoring for roast beef or pork, in soups and stews, and for pickling.

Cinnamon Cinnamon is the inner bark of a tropical evergreen tree. Once used in Roman love potions, it comes mostly from Asia.

There are two main types of cinnamon: cassia, which is reddish-brown with a bittersweet flavor, and Ceylon, which is buff-colored and less sweet. Most cinnamon sold in the United States is cassia. It is available in sticks or ground into powder.

Most commonly used in sweets and baked goods (chocolate, cakes, cookies), cinnamon also works well in chutneys, marinades and savory dishes such as Middle Eastern meat stews.

Cloves Native to Southeast Asia, cloves have been in use since the third century B.C.

The dried, unopened flower buds of the evergreen clove tree, cloves are reddish-brown and shaped like nail heads. They are available whole or ground.

Cloves are a common pickling spice. They are also used for studding hams and beef stew or gravy. Use sparingly.

Coriander Indigenous to the Mediterranean and the Orient, coriander was cultivated in ancient Egypt for medicinal and culinary purposes.

Also known as cilantro, coriander is related to parsley. It has a light, lemony flavor. Both seeds and dark green leaves are available.

Seeds are common in pickling and with roasts and whole fowl. Ground seed may be used in curries, soups, grains and marinades.

Cumin Dating back to the Old Testament, cumin originated in the Mediterranean. It's now grown in India, China, Japan and Indonesia.

Cumin is the dried, seedlike fruit of a plant that's related to the parsley family. Aromatic and nutty, it comes in three colors: black, white and amber, which is the most common. Available in seed and ground forms.

Commonly used in Asian, Middle Eastern, Latin American and Northern African cooking, for pickling, curries, chili, stews and bread.

Fennel Seed The fennel plant has been cultivated since the time of the Romans. It is now grown worldwide.

Oval and greenish-brown, fennel seeds have a mild anise taste. Available whole or ground.

Commonly used to spice sausages, roast pork, fish, shellfish and tomato sauce, and for vegetables such as cabbage, cucumbers, onions and sauerkraut. It may also be toasted and chewed to aid digestion.

Ginger Cultivated since ancient times, most ginger now comes from Jamaica. It is also grown in India, Africa and China.

The dried and ground form of the gnarled root of the ginger plant. Fresh ginger roots may be peeled and grated or chopped.

Essential for Asian and Indian dishes, ginger is used to season meat, poultry, seafood and vegetables, in curries, stir-fries and soups. It is also a common ingredient in baked goods, such as gingerbread and gingersnaps. A pinch will give salt-free dishes a boost.

Mace The finest mace is grown on the Spice Island of Grenada.

An orange-yellow powder made from the dried "cage" that covers the seed of the nutmeg tree, mace smells and tastes like a softer version of nutmeg.

May be used for both savory (chicken and vegetable soups, wild game, polenta) and sweet (chocolate sauce, spice cake) dishes.

Mustard Seed Mustard was used for both culinary and medicinal purposes by the ancient Romans and Greeks. An acrid seed from a plant in the same family as broccoli and Brussels sprouts. Two major types are yellow (American) and brown (Asian).

Yellow seeds are larger but less pungent than brown. Also available in powder form.

Popular for pickling, mustard seed is also used to flavor barbecue sauces, marinades and rubs, as well as dishes such as egg salad, potato salad and coleslaw. Asian seed is often toasted before use.

Nutmeg Cultivated for over a thousand years, the finest nutmeg in the world is from the Spice Island of Grenada.

The brown, inner kernel of the fruit of the nutmeg tree, which can grow as tall as fifty feet, the nutmeg seed is egg-shaped and about an inch long. The flavor is warm, spicy and sweet. Available whole or ground.

Especially popular in baked goods, custards and cream sauces, nutmeg may also be used to flavor vegetables such as squash and spinach.

Paprika Paprika dates back to the 15th century, when European explorers in the New World discovered the peppers from which it is derived. Hungarian paprika is considered superior.

Ground from dried, sweet red pepper pods, paprika is vibrant in color and ranges from mild to hot in taste.

A standard in classic European dishes such as paprikash, goulash and stroganoff, paprika may also be used to garnish salads as well as to flavor most meat, seafood, poultry, pasta and vegetable dishes.

Peppercorn, Black A valuable commodity of the worldwide spice trade, pepper was once used as European currency. It grows in warm, moist climates near the equator, with some of the highest quality (Malabar and Tellicherry) from India.

A berry that grows on the pepper plant, black peppercorns are picked when not quite ripe, then dried until they shrivel and the skin turns almost black. Spicy and pungent. Available whole, cracked or ground.

Can be used to flavor almost all dishes, savory and sweet, including meats, vegetables, seafood, salads and stews.

Saffron Considered the most valuable spice in the world, saffron has been known in Mediterranean countries for 4,000 years. Today, Kashmir saffron from Northern India is considered premier.

The dried, yellow-orange stigmas (14,000 equal one ounce) from the purple crocus, saffron is aromatic and pungent.

Used to both flavor and tint food, saffron is commonly found in paella, risotto, bouillabaisse, rice and curries.

Sesame Seed Sesame seed may be the first recorded seasoning. It grows in India and the Orient.

From the pods of the sesame plant, sesame seeds have a nutty, slightly sweet flavor and are high in protein. They are available in both black and white.

More common in the United States, white seeds may be used in cakes, cookies, pastries and salads. Black seeds are used mostly in Asian cooking to add texture and flavor to fish, rice and noodle dishes.

Turmeric Native to the Orient, turmeric is also cultivated in India and the Caribbean. It has been used in cooking since 600 B.C.

The root of a tropical plant related to ginger, turmeric is yellow-orange in color and has a bitter taste.

Popular in East Indian cooking, turmeric both flavors (curries, relish) and colors (mustard) food.


Delicious Living

A Guide To Spices

A Guide to Spices
by Linda Hayes

With the right spices, it's a cinch to cook flavorful, healthy meals.


Imagine apple pie without cinnamon and nutmeg. Curried vegetables without coriander and cumin. Chili without cayenne pepper. Or bratwurst without mustard. Cooking — as well as eating, for that matter — without spices would be, in a word, bland, bland, bland.

Very simply, spices are pungent or aromatic seasonings from the bark, buds, fruit, seeds or stems of plants. Most spices are grown in tropical or subtropical climates around the globe. Used individually or in blends, in whole-seed or powder form, spices serve to add color, flavor and overall pizzazz to everything from aioli to zabaglione.

For as far back as history has been recorded, spices have played a valuable role in world culture. In addition to culinary purposes, they have been used as medicine, in perfume and even as religious offerings.

Around 3000 B.C., what is known as the spice trade began on the Arabian Peninsula. Spices were brought by camel caravans from India and the Orient. By the Middle Ages, spices were in such high demand that they became powerful commodities. When Venice, Italy, took control of the European spice trade, expeditions to seek new sources for highly coveted spices eventually resulted in the discovery of the New World.

Today, spices from all corners of the globe are available everywhere, from your local natural foods market to catalogs to spice merchants accessed via the Internet. As a result, cuisines such as Thai, Indian, Moroccan and Mexican are becoming as popular as French, Italian and Chinese. Restaurant chefs and home cooks alike are experimenting with a bounty of ingredients and creating new "fusion" cuisines.

"People's taste buds are becoming more and more sophisticated," says Keith Keogh, president of the California Culinary Academy (CCA) in San Francisco. "They're craving a higher level of flavor. Spices give food an identifier tag. Chicken is chicken and beef is beef. But if you add curry — it gives it a certain ethnicity."

While learning how to best use spices may take a bit of experimenting, certain approaches are tried and true. Todd English, owner-chef of a collection of restaurants around the country, including Olives in Charlestown, Mass., believes that spices should work in collaboration, like a symphony. "You don't want just the violins to stand out, or the bass or the trombones," he explains. "Working together in harmony, spices have a big effect on the outcome of a dish."

To allow spices to reach their full potential, English recommends incorporating them into the cooking process as early as possible. He will often grind fresh spices in a coffee mill, or brown or toast them in a cast-iron skillet to bring out their flavors, before sautéing them with onions and garlic, or using them as rubs.

At the CCA, Keogh conducts taste tests with his students. "We simply add spices to individual batches of cream cheese or butter," he says, "and let everyone taste and analyze the flavors one by one. You can learn a lot about the properties of spices and how they work together and alone."

Spices will not "go bad," but they eventually lose some of their flavor and aroma (especially in the ground form). To help preserve freshness, buy spices in small quantities, grind whole spices only as needed, and store in airtight containers in a dark, cool space.

To help you round out your spice cabinet, as well as assist you on your journey into the world of international cuisines, we've put together the chart at left. Whether you're making meatloaf or mulligatawny, it will help you find your way.

Linda Hayes is food editor of SKI magazine and travel editor for Mountain Living magazine.

Photography by: Joe Hancock


Delicious Living

Chef's Choice: 2 Interviews

What spice would you not be without in your kitchen?

Todd English: Allspice for its versatility. It adds heat, aroma and power to food.

Keith Keogh: Peppercorns. You have to have the basics, and with peppercorns, you can do reductions and all sorts of preparations.

What spice do you feel will grow in popularity in the coming year?

English: What I call the Renaissance spices, like nutmeg, cumin and allspice. They add very interesting elements to dishes. (For example, English adds nutmeg to spaghetti sauce.)

Keogh: I think curry is up-and-coming. People are beginning to identify regional flavors — Asian, Indonesian — and appreciate different flavors in different styles of curry dishes.


Delicious Living

Yoga Caps Carpal Tunnel

In a study of two groups with carpal tunnel syndrome, one group was treated traditionally with an immobilizing wrist splint. The other study group did a series of yoga strengthening, stretching and balancing exercises. While both groups improved, the yoga patients reported less pain and better grip strength.

Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998, vol. 280