EFSA has reviewed the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for calcium and vitamin D. For vitamin D, the UL for adults and adolescents has been raised from 50 micrograms (50µg) a day to 100µg; the UL for children aged 1-10 has been increased from 25µg a day to 50µg a day. For calcium, the Panel concluded that no new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for adults of 2,500mg a day.
Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vitamin D
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of vitamin D and to provide, if necessary, revised Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) of vitamin D for all relevant population groups. The ULs for adults including pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents were revised. For adults, hypercalcaemia was selected as the indicator of toxicity. In two studies in men, intakes between 234 and 275 µg/day were not associated with hypercalcaemia, and a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 250 µg/day was established. Taking into account uncertainties associated with these studies, the UL for adults including pregnant and lactating women was set at 100 µg/day. Despite a continuing paucity of data for high vitamin D intakes in children and adolescents, the UL was adapted to 100 µg/day for ages 11-17 years, considering that owing to phases of rapid bone formation and growth this age group is unlikely to have a lower tolerance for vitamin D compared to adults. The same applies also to children aged 1-10 years, but taking into account their smaller body size, a UL of 50 µg/day is proposed. For infants, the UL of 25 µg/day based on previously available data relating high vitamin D intakes to impaired growth and hypercalcaemia was retained as limited additional evidence has emerged since the previous risk assessment. Data on vitamin D intakes from surveys in 14 European countries indicate that intakes in high consumers are below the revised ULs for vitamin D for all population groups.
Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Calcium
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg/day for adults, including pregnant and lactating women), which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number of placebo controlled human intervention studies in adults published since then also showed that total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements are tolerated without adverse effects. The Panel considers that no relationship has been established between long-term calcium intakes from diet and supplements and increased risk of nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease or prostate cancer. No new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for calcium for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, of 2,500 mg. No new data have become available which would allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents. Data from European populations indicate that intakes of calcium in high consumers among adult males can be close to the UL. Although available data do not allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents, no risk has been identified with highest current levels of calcium intake in these age groups.