This research combined quantitative and qualitative consumer research. The results are indicative of U.S. consumers’ perceptions and attitudes; however, as with all qualitative studies, broad generalizations are to be approached carefully.
Supplementation of the diet with GLA (0.3 g – 1.5 g/day) leads to increased levels of the metabolite DGLA in membrane phospholipids. Levels of arachidonic acid (AA) may or may not increase after GLA supplementation, depending upon the dietary intake of long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, which compete with AA for membrane incorporation. DGLA and AA are precursors of several types of eicosanoids involved in inflammation. While eicosanoids derived from AA are primarily pro-inflammatory, eicosanoids derived from DGLA may have anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, GLA has been proposed to potentially mediate numerous health and disease states, including PMS, arthritis, skin health, diabetes and cardiovascular health (Horrobin, 1992).
|Concentrated Sources of GLA|
|Current Sources||GLA, Weight % of Fatty Acids|
|Potential Future Sources||GLA, Weight % of Fatty Acids|
There are numerous brands of EPO and borage oil capsules on the market. While some brands carry both types of oils, others sell only one or the other. A nonscientific sample of products from California pharmacies found EPO products ranging in price from $6.49 to $22.99 for 50-60 softgels. Prices for borage oil were more consistent, in the $15-$20 range for 60-100 softgels.
A review of the current products’ labeling indicates there is no consensus regarding adequate or recommended doses of GLA, which range from approximately 90 mg to 1000 mg per day. Further, GLA oil products bear a wide variety of different structure function (S/F) claims. See Table 2 below.
|Examples of Dosing Recommendations & Structure/Function (S/F) Claims|
|Brand & Oil||GLA Per Softgel||Serving Size & Recommended Frequency||Recommended GLA Daily Dose ||Health State Mentioned in S/F Claim |
|Nature’s Bounty||90 mg||1 softgel (1-3 times daily)||90-270 mg||Prostaglandin Precursor|
|Barleans (EPO)||130 mg||2 capsules (once daily)||260 ml||PMS, Menopause|
|Health from the Sun||300 mg||1 softgel (once daily)||300 mg||Healthy Skin, Flexible Joints|
|Natrol||500 mg||1 softgel (1-2 times daily)||500-1000 mg||Cardiovascular Health|
The first phase included a telephone survey of 1000 randomly chosen U.S. households. The survey was conducted by a prominent market research agency and utilized questions with category scale responses. The sample was balanced to be representative of the continental U.S. based on region, population density, household income, household size and household type. The results were weighted, using the Current Population Survey from the U.S. Census Bureau to give appropriate representation on various demographic factors, including gender, age, income and region.
Based on incidence data from the telephone survey and the 2000 U.S. Census data, we estimate that approximately six million adults purchase GLA oil products. Two-thirds buy EPO, while the remainder primarily purchases borage oil.
Consumers of GLA oil products are predominantly female by a ratio of 2:1, 70% of which use EPO. Males are evenly split, using both borage and evening primrose oils. GLA oil products are used at a similar incidence across most major demographic criteria (region, household income, marital status). Adults of all ages use GLA oil products—the data contained no strong age-related skew.
Consumers are purchasing their GLA products in multiple locations. Almost half buy at mass merchandise stores like as Wal-Mart or Target. Forty-two percent purchase at health food stores. One-third of consumers purchase GLA products at drug stores or pharmacies. Approximately 25% are making purchases online, via mail order or at a grocery store.
Among the GLA oil respondents, physicians are not viewed as adequate sources of information about dietary supplements, leading consumers to seek information elsewhere. Opinions of popular health gurus obtained from newsletters or websites, as well as friends and family are more respected. Males (77%) are more likely than females (44%) to consult the Internet for information about dietary supplements. Typically consumers visit and consult more than one Internet site for supplement recommendations.
In spite of trying to educate themselves, the focus group respondents were not adequately informed. More than 50% did not know that GLA is the active ingredient in borage and evening primrose oils. There was wide divergence of knowledge about dosing and response to supplementation. Some believe that the benefit “washes out” with water. Even more startling, some believed that the benefit is immediate. Several respondents said that they take more on a “bad day” which should have no impact beyond a placebo effect. Finally, some respondents were satisfied with low GLA dose products, while others looked for the highest dose products available.
While many of the respondents consumed a multitude of dietary supplements, they expressed many distrustful comments regarding the industry in general. They also distrust labeling claims, which many view as exaggerated.
Despite their distrust of the industry, we observed a willingness to be influenced. When presented with information on GLA as the active ingredient in EPO and borage oils, for example, consumers readily chose between different product concepts based on GLA content, usually preferring those with higher GLA levels, particularly if these represented a better value (more GLA per dollar spent). However, some respondents were wary of products with high levels of GLA, believing that they may have undesired side effects.
The respondents in these studies also claimed to highly value “naturalness,” but at the same time remained interested in products with an attractive brand name and label with competitive price. Naturalness seemed to be a secondary factor in their purchase decisions. The primary purchase driver is number of capsules recommended for effective dosage per day, with 1 pill per day being the overwhelming consumer preference. Also with most consumers, price and a trustworthy brand name are key factors to consider.
Consumers were also asked why they use GLA products. Most listed more than one reason. In order of prevalence, those reasons included:
83% Improve general health
52% Reduce inflammation
44% Reduce joint or other body pain
44% Improve the appearance of skin
28% Reduce eczema, dermatitis or itchy skin
28% Reduce effects of PMS
12% Reduce diabetic neuropathy
4% Other: e.g. heart health, cancer prevention, yeast infection, menopause symptoms
Consumers definitely need additional, factual information about GLA, as well as recommended GLA dosing levels for specific health states in order to make fact-based decisions about GLA product offerings. To the extent allowable by law, the industry should make a concerted effort to provide this information. Since many GLA consumers use the Internet, consumer-friendly information should be made available online to help them through this education process. This presents an opportunity to position GLA per se as a healthy fatty acid, rather than focusing on the similarities and differences between EPO and borage oil.
About the authors: Dr. Julianne Lindemann, principal of Life Sciences Alliance, Moraga, CA, can be reached at 925-377-0790; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Alexander Merolli, principal and co-founder of Life Sciences Alliance Pleasanton, CA, is also a member of Stratecon International Consultants. He can be reached at 925-462-7428; E-mail: email@example.com.
References furnished upon request.