New Peer-reviewed Studies Highlight Positive Health Benefits of Natural Resistant Starch

Fifteen Studies in 2005 and 2006 Reveal Health Benefits Including Glycemic Response, Energy Management, Lipid Oxidation, Digestive Health and More

Anaheim, CA (March 23, 2006) – The incorporation of resistant starch as part of a healthy diet is receiving greater attention today than ever before. Since the beginning of 2005 alone, there have been 15 studies published on the health benefits of natural resistant starches around the world. This is considered to be the greatest number of scientific studies conducted on this dietary ingredient in recent history. The primary type of starch used in these studies has been from a special variety of corn naturally high in amylose.

According to Rhonda Witwer, Business Development Manager of Nutrition for National Starch Food Innovation, the increased scientific activity underscores a growing awareness among the nutrition and scientific communities about the potential of natural resistant starch to address a wide range of health issues. “Every day we hear reports about the epidemic proportions of obesity and diabetes. At the same time, an aging and increasingly aware population is taking up issues like glycemic management and energy management more than ever before. Natural resistant starch is hot in product development right now precisely because it addresses these pressing health concerns while maintaining the great taste of foods – an unusual combination” she said.

Ms. Witwer went on to point out that prior to 2005, there was substantial research on the health benefits of natural resistant starches from high amylose corn, including more than 120 published, peer-reviewed studies that indicate benefits in intestinal/colonic health as well as metabolically important benefits in glycemic management and energy.

Studies have shown that different classes of resistant starch are digested and/or fermented differently and thus must be considered individually. Of the 120 nutritional studies mentioned above, more than 40 studies in humans using high amylose corn (RS2), show that RS2 starches contribute specific health benefits. Examples include:

• Two clinical trials published by Dr. Denise Robertson and her colleagues at the Oxford Lipid Metabolism Group in England show that Hi-maize® increases insulin sensitivity in healthy people. Insulin sensitivity is a critical factor in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.

• A recently published clinical trial by Dr. Janine Higgins and her colleagues at the University of Colorado demonstrated that eating food made with high amylose corn RS2 resistant starch can increase your body’s fat-burning ability by 20-25%. This may be important for maintaining healthy weight and healthy body composition.

• A new study by Dr. Kay Behall and her colleagues at the USDA confirmed that the level of amylose (the linear chains of glucose naturally occurring in starch) is important in reducing the glycemic and insulin impact of foods.

• Numerous studies demonstrate that high amylose corn RS2 resistant starch promotes intestinal/colonic health through their action as prebiotic fibers. They encourage the growth of health-promoting bacteria, reduce pH and significantly increase the production of butyrate via fermentation. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, is important for colonic health and has been shown to have many health-promoting properties.

This substantial body of data provides a high level of confidence that numerous benefits are possible through the consumption of RS2 resistant starches.

List of Recent Studies

The following references are provided for further information.

Glycemic Health

Robertson, M.D., Bickerton, A.S., Dennis, A.L., Vidal, H., Frayn, K.N. Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (2005), 82, 559-567.

Weickert, M.O., Mohlig, M., Koebnick, C., Holst, J.J., Namsolleck, P., Ristow, M., Osterhoff, M., Rochlitz, H., Rudovich, N., Spranger, J., Pfeiffer, A.F.H. Impact of cereal fibre on glucose-regulating factors. Diabetologia, (2005), 48, 2343-2353.

Behall, K.M., Scholfield, D.J. Food amylose content affects postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Cereal Chemistry, (2005), 82 6, 654-659.

Higgins, J.A., Higbee, D.R., Donahoo, W.T., Brown, I.L., Bell, M.L., Bessesen, D.H. Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation. Nutrition & Metabolism, (2004), 1:8.

Colonic/Digestive Health

Toden, S., Bird, A.R.,Topping, D.L.,Conlon, M.A., Resistant Starch Prevents Colonic DNA Damage Induced by High Dietary Cooked Red Meat or Casein in Rats Cancer Biology & Therapy (2006) 5:3

Patten, G.S., Conlon, M.A., Bird, A.R., Adams, M.J., Topping, D.L.,and Abeywardena, M.Y., Interactive Effects of Dietary Resistant Starch and Fish Oil on Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production and Agonist-Induced Contractility in Ileum of Young Rats. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, (2006) 51, 254-261

Drzikova, B., Dongowski, G., Gebhardt, E. Dietary fibre-rich oat-based products affect serum lipids, microbiota, formation of short-chain fatty acids and steroids in rats. British Journal of Nutrition, (2005), 94, 1012-1025.

Le Leu, R.K., Brown, I.L., Hu, Y., Bird, A.R., Jackson, M., Esterman, A., Young, G.P. A synbiotic combination of resistant starch and Bifidobacterium lactis facilitates apoptotic deletion of carcinogen-damaged cells in rat colon. Journal of Nutrition, (2005), 135, 996-1001.

Morita, T., Kasaoka, S., Kiriyama, S., Brown, I.L., Topping, D.L.

Comparative effects of acetylated and unmodified high-amylose maize starch in rats. Starch, (2005), 57, 246-253.

Morita, T., Hayashi, J., Motoi, H., Yagishita, T., Takeya, K., Sugiyama, K., Kiriyama, S. In vitro and in vivo digestibility of recrystallized amylose and its application for low glycemic foods. Journal of Food Science, (2005), 70, S179-S185.

Toden, S., Bird, A.R., Topping, D.L., Conlon, M.A. Differential effects of dietary whey and casein on colonic DNA damage in rats. The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, (2005), 60, 44-46.

Toden, S., Bird, A.R., Topping, D.L., Conlon, M.A. Resistant starch attenuates colonic DNA damage induced by higher dietary protein in rats. Nutrition and Cancer (2005) 51, 45-51.

Gajda, M., Flickinger, EA., Greshop, C.M., Bauer, L.L., Merchen, N.R., Fahey, G.C. Corn hybrid affects in vitro and in vivo measures of nutrient digestibility in dogs. Journal of Animal Science, (2005), 83, 160-171.

In-Vitro Studies

Choi, Y.M., Oh, S.H., Yu, K.W., Shin, K.S., Ra, K.S., Park, C.S., Kim, K.M., Suh, H.J. Characteristics of resistant starch: a Hi-maize diet that is fortified with the functions of dietary fiber. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, (2005), 34, 1-6.

Iyer, C., Kailasapathy, K. Effect of co-encapsulation of probiotics with prebiotics on increasing the viability of encapsulated bacteria under in vitro acidic and bile salt conditions and in yoghurt. Journal of Food Science, (2005), 70, M18-M23.

Drzikova, B., Dongowski, G., Gebhardt, E., Habel, A. The composition of dietary fibre-rich extrudates from oat affects bile acid binding and fermentation in vitro. Food Chemistry, (2005), 90, 181-192.


Nugent, A.P. Health properties of resistant starch. Nutrition Bulletin, (2005), 30 1, 27-54.

About National Starch Food Innovation

National Starch Food Innovation is a leading global supplier of nature-based functional and nutritional ingredient solutions to the food and beverage industries. The company has a strong focus on delivering innovation to meet market and consumer trends in wholesome and natural, texture, nutrition, wellness, vitality and targeted delivery solutions. This vision, combined with an extensive, award-winning product range, market knowledge and technical expertise, makes National Starch Food Innovation a partner of choice for the next generation of food producers.

In the area of human nutrition, National Starch Food Innovation has led the development of a In the area of human nutrition, National Starch Food Innovation has led the development of a commercially available form of high amylose corn resistant starch, known as Hi-maize® 5-in-1 Fiber. Today Hi-maize® is the only natural RS2 resistant starch available in a commercial form for use in processed and prepared foods. There is substantial research on the health benefits of natural resistant starches from high amylose corn, including more than 120 published, peer-reviewed studies in the areas of glycemic management, energy management, weight management and digestive health.

For more information on Hi-maize® and National Starch Food Innovation, visit

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