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Epax fish oilsVital stats: EPAX fish oils

Study claim: EPAX 1050 TG brand omega-3 fatty acids help combat depression and agitation symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Published: Freund-Levy Y, et al. Omega-3 supplementation in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007 Jun 21.

Abstract: Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that dietary fish or fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may have effects in psychiatric and behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An association with APOEomega4 carriers and neuro-psychiatric symptoms in AD has also been suggested.

Researchers sought to determine effects of dietary omega-3 supplementation to AD patients with mild to moderate disease on psychiatric and behavioral symptoms, and daily functions, and a possible relation to APOEgenotype. The study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial where 204 AD patients (74+/-nine years) with acetylcholine esterase inhibitor treatment and a MMSE >15 points were randomised to daily intake of 1.7g DHA and 0.6g EPA (omega-3 group), or placebo for six months. Then, all received the omega-3 supplementation for six more months. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were measured with Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Montgomery Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS). Caregivers burden and activities of daily living were also assessed.

One hundred seventy four patients fulfilled the trial. Seventy two per cent were APOEomega4 carriers. No significant overall treatment effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms, on activities of daily living or on caregivers' burden were found. However, significant positive treatment effects on the scores in the NPI agitation domain in APOEomega4 carriers and in MADRS scores in non-APOEomega4 carriers were found. Supplementation with omega-3s in patients with mild to moderate AD did not result in marked effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms except for possible positive effects on depressive symptoms (assessed by MADRS) in non-APOEomega4 carriers and agitation symptoms (assessed by NPI) in APOEomega4 carriers.

Potential applications: EPAX DHA, available for supplements, guards the ageing brain cells from degradation by neurotoxic mechanisms.

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+ 47 22 53 49 00

GlycoCarnVital stats: Sigma-tau's GlycoCarn, part of its AminoCarnitines line

Study claim: GlycoCarn increases blood levels of NOx, a marker of nitric-oxide production.

Published: Bloomer RJ, et al. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine increases plasma nitrate/nitrite in resistance-trained men. J Intl Soc Sports Med 2007;4:22-7.

ABSTRACT: Oral intake of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) increases plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx), a surrogate measure of nitric oxide production. But these findings were observed at rest, and in sedentary subjects. In the present study, researchers determined the impact of oral GPLC on plasma NOx at rest and in response to a period of reactive hyperemia in resistance-trained men.

Using a double-blind, randomised, crossover design, 15 healthy young men took 3g/day GPLC (PLC + 1,044mg glycine) or placebo for four weeks, with a two-week washout. Blood samples were taken at rest and at 0, three and 10 minutes following an ischemia-reperfusion protocol. Data are presented as mean +/- SEM.

A condition main effect was noted for NOx, with higher values in subjects when using GPLC (45.6 +/- 2.8mumol.L-1) compared to placebo (34.9 +/- 1.2mumol.L-1). No time main effect was noted, although values increased approximately 12 per cent from rest (37.7 +/- 2.7mumol.L-1) to a peak at 10 minutes post protocol (42.3 +/- 3.3 mumol.L-1). The interaction effect was not significant, although paired time contrasts revealed higher values for GPLC compared to placebo at three (48.2 +/- 6.7 vs. 34.9 +/- 2.4mumol.L-1) and 10 (48.8 +/- 5.9 vs 35.7 +/- 2.1 mumol.L-1) minutes post protocol, with nonstatistically significant differences noted at rest (41.8 +/- 4.5 vs 33.6 +/- 2.5mumol.L-1) and at 0 minutes (43.6 +/- 5.1 vs 35.4 +/- 2.7mumol.L-1) post protocol. An analysis by subject indicated that 11 of the 15 subjects experienced an increase in NOx with GPLC treatment. These findings indicate that short-term oral GPLC supplementation can increase NOx in resistance-trained men.

Potential applications: GlycoCarn increases blood levels of nitric oxide, a signaling molecule that helps relax blood vessels and enhances blood flow, especially during physical stress. GlycoCarn supports healthy blood-lipid levels and increases muscle glutathione, necessary for muscular fitness and endurance. Applicable in supplements, medical food, infant formula, drinks and feed.

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+1 212 645 5202

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