Vitamins E and C Confirmed Safe At High Doses

—New Article Authored by Leading Experts Published in AJCN—

WASHINGTON, D.C., April 29, 2005 – Fourteen leading safety and antioxidant experts reviewed the available scientific literature on vitamins E and C and concluded vitamin E is safe for the general population at intakes up to 1600 IU daily and vitamin C is safe at up to 2000 mg daily, according to a new article published in the April issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN).

"This peer-reviewed expert analysis should help reassure consumers about the safety of vitamin E for a healthy population at the most common daily doses on the market—400 IU and 200 IU—for vitamin E single supplements," said John Hathcock, Ph.D., vice president, scientific and international affairs, Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), and the lead author on the article. However, Dr. Hathcock pointed out that consumers should not view the study’s conclusions as a license to exceed recommended doses on product labels, noting that the UL ("Tolerable Upper Intake Level") is a dose at which "there is no known harm but it is not a recommendation or suggestion for daily use."

In reviewing the available scientific literature on vitamins E and C, the scientists reviewed clinical trials as well as epidemiological studies in humans, determining there was sufficient information from human data to support a conclusion on safety. This is in contrast to the approach taken by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), a scientific advisory body, which established its UL for vitamin E based on an extrapolation from animal data. The IOM set a UL at 1000 mg for vitamin E (which is equivalent to 1000 IU synthetic; 1500 IU natural).

With regard to vitamin C, the authors noted that "Numerous studies of vitamin C supplementation have provided no pattern of evidence to support concerns about safety other than occasional gastrointestinal upset or mild diarrhea…" The authors came to the same conclusion as the IOM in establishing the UL at 2000 mg for vitamin C.

The review of the scientific literature encompassed 95 references, including the recent, controversial meta-analysis on vitamin E from Johns Hopkins University.

Vitamins E and C are among the most popular dietary supplements. Many studies suggest that these antioxidant supplements, either alone or in combination with other supplements, can help promote overall good health and be helpful in lowering the risk of specific chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, some types of cancer, and ischemic heart disease.

The article, titled "Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes," is available on-line at In addition to Dr. Hathcock, the authors include: Angelo Azzi, M.D., Ph.D., the University of Bern, Switzerland; Jeffrey Blumberg, Ph.D., Tufts University; Tammy Bray, Ph.D., Oregon State University, Corvallis; Annette Dickinson, Ph.D., Council for Responsible Nutrition; Balz Frei, Ph.D., Oregon State University, Corvallis; Ishwarlal Jialal, M.D., Ph.D., University of California, Davis; Carol S. Johnston, Ph.D., Arizona State University, Mesa; Frank J. Kelly, Ph.D., King’s College, London, United Kingdom; Klaus Kraemer, Ph.D., formerly with BASF, Germany; Lester Packer, Ph.D., University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Sampath Parthasarathy, Ph.D., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge; Helmut Sies, M.D., Ph.D., Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany; Maret G. Traber, Ph.D., Oregon State University, Corvallis.

The Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), founded in 1973, is a Washington, D.C.-based trade association representing dietary supplement industry ingredient suppliers and manufacturers. CRN members adhere to a strong code of ethics, comply with dosage limits and manufacture dietary supplements to high quality standards

Judy Blatman

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