Study claim: Cognis' Tonalin brand CLA increases lean body mass but has no effect on body fat mass, weight or body mass index.
Published: Steck SE, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. J Nutr 2007 May;137(5):1188-93.
Abstract: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, researchers performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 weeks in otherwise healthy obese humans.
Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomised to receive placebo (8g safflower oil/day), 3.2g/day CLA, or 6.4g/day CLA for 12 weeks. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety.
Lean body mass increased by 0.64kg in the 6.4g/day CLA group after 12 weeks of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, haemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4g/day CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.
Potential applications: Tonalin is available as a supplements ingredient for the weight-management sector.
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Study claim: Lipid Nutrition's Clarinol CLA has no effect on insulin resistance or glucose metabolism in overweight people.
Published: Syvertsen C, et al. The effect of six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on insulin resistance in overweight and obese. Int J Obes 2007 Jul;31(7):1148-54.
Abstract: Contradicting results have been published regarding CLA on insulin resistance. Only a few have used the euglycemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp method, considered the standard for measuring insulin resistance. This study evaluated if CLA as a mixture of the main isomers trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 affects insulin resistance in healthy overweight and obese adults.
The randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed change in body composition as a primary end point (n=118) with either placebo (olive oil) or CLA (Clarinol) supplements for six months. A subpopulation of 49 subjects enrolled in an euglycemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp study at baseline and after six months with the study drug. The primary outcome was a change in glucose uptake (M) as measured by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp method. Secondary outcomes were correlates between insulin resistance and changes in body composition or blood chemistry parameters. n=41 completed the clamp test at both time points.
The median M of the CLA group was 11.0mg min lean body mass (lbm) (n=24) at baseline, 10.3mg min lbm (n=24) after six months, and the median difference was +0.21mg min lbm (n=24). Placebo group median M was 8.4mg min lbm at baseline and 9.3mg min lbm after six months; median difference was -0.22mg min lbm (n=17). No significant difference was found within or between groups. Likewise, the glucose uptake insulin concentration ratio during clamp (M/I) was independent of treatment and time. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index derived from fasting glucose and insulin were also independent of treatment and time, and HOMA for the clamp population (n=49) corresponded well with HOMA for the per protocol population (n=83). Changes in M were inversely correlated to changes in glucohaemoglobin, but did not correlate with changes in either glucose, insulin, insulin c-peptide, leptin, adiponectin or per cent body fat.
Potential applications: Clarinol CLA is suitable for a variety of weight-management products, including protein shakes, ready-to-drink shake mixes and capsules.