Study claim: HMR lignans started at an early phase of cancer tumour development inhibits the growth of prostate cancer.
Published: Bylund A, et al. Anticancer effects of a plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol on a prostate cancer model in vivo. Exp Biol Med 2005 Mar; 230(3):217-23. Abstract: Clinical intervention studies and experimental studies with lignan-rich diets suggest that lignans may have inhibitory effects on prostate cancer by binding weakly to estradiol receptors and hence protecting against cell proliferation. However, no clinical or experimental studies with purified lignans have been published.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol (HMR) on LNCaP human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic mice. HMR lignans are a pure lignan not bound to sugars. Upon arrival in a healthy intestinal tract, it is more efficiently transformed into enterolactone, the desired compound that is protective in human health.
Athymic nude male mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCaP cells. Starting three days after tumour cell injections, a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 0.15% or 0.30% HMR was administered to mice and the tumour take rate and growth was observed for nine weeks.
The HMR diet inhibited growth of LNCaP tumours. Mice treated with HMR had smaller tumour volume, lower tumour take rate, increased proportion of non-growing tumours and higher tumour cell apoptotic index compared with controls. Furthermore, the cell proliferation index was reduced in mice receiving the 0.30% HMR diet compared with mice receiving the control diet.
Results suggest that dietary HMR started at the early phase of the tumour development inhibits the growth of the LNCaP human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic male mice. This study reinforces the mechanism of action with other disease states for which flax lignans are known, in particular cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer.
Potential applications: HMR lignan is a low-dose, highly bioavailable lignan supplement, providing a more digestible alternative to flax.
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Study claim: Hi-maize resistant starch in combination with wheat bran can positively affect faecal indexes that lead to colonic benefits.
Published: Muir JG, et al. Combining wheat bran with resistant starch has more beneficial effects on fecal indexes than does wheat bran alone. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 Jun; 79(6):1020-8.
Abstract: Wheat bran (WB) increases faecal bulk and hastens colonic transit, whereas resistant starch (RS) has effects on colonic fermentation, including increasing concentrations of butyrate. Researchers hypothesised that a diet combining WB with RS would produce more favourable changes in faecal variables (eg, faecal bulk, rapid transit time, lower pH and higher butyrate) than would WB alone.
In this randomised crossover block-design study, 20 volunteers with a family history of colorectal cancer were recruited. The study included three diets: control, WB (12g fibre/day), and WBRS (12g WB fibre/day plus 22g RS/day), each continued for three weeks. In each diet, the major source of protein was lean red meat. During five consecutive days (days 15-19) of each dietary period, the subjects collected their total faecal output for analysis.
The WB diet resulted in greater faecal output (by 23% and 21% for wet and dry weights, respectively) and a lesser transit time (-11 hours) than did the control diet but did not have major effects on fermentation variables. Compared with the control diet, the WBRS diet resulted in greater faecal output (by 56%) and a shorter transit time (-10 hours), lower faecal pH (-0.15 units), higher faecal concentration (by 14%) and daily excretion (by 101%) of acetate, higher faecal concentration (by 79%) and daily excretion (by 162%) of butyrate, a higher faecal ratio of butyrate to total short-chain fatty acids (by 45%), and lower concentrations of total phenols (-34%) and ammonia (-27%). Combining WB with RS had more benefits than did WB alone.
Potential applications: This finding may have important implications for the dietary modulation of luminal contents, especially in the distal colon (the most common site of tumour formation.)
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